Inspired by Mozilla’s anti-tracking policy, Apple has announced its intention to implement the WebKit Tracking Prevention Policy into Safari, the details of which it shared last week. This policy outlines the types of tracking techniques that will be prevented in WebKit to ensure user privacy. The anti-tracking mitigations listed in this policy will be applied “universally to all websites, or based on algorithmic, on-device classification.”
Announcing the WebKit Tracking Prevention Policy — a policy adopted by the WebKit project for new code contributions and our web standards work. It details the tracking we aim to prevent in our ongoing efforts to protect user privacy. https://t.co/ifUEH3VFQk
— WebKit (@webkit) August 14, 2019
Web tracking is the collection of user data over multiple web pages and websites, which can be linked to individual users via a unique user identifier. All your previous interactions with any website could be recorded and recalled with the help of a tracking system like cookies. Among the data tracked include the things you have searched, the websites you visited, the things you have clicked on, the movements of your mouse around a web page, and more.
Organizations and companies rely heavily on web tracking to gain insight into their user behavior and preferences. One of the main purposes of these insights is user profiling and targeted marketing. While this user tracking helps businesses, it can be pervasive and used for other sinister purposes. In the recent past, we have seen many companies including the big tech like Facebook and Google involved in several scandals related to violating user online privacy. For instance, Facebook’s Cambridge Analytica scandal and Google’s cookie case.
Apple aims to create “a healthy web ecosystem, with privacy by design”
The WebKit Prevention Policy will prevent several tracking techniques including cross-site tracking, stateful tracking, covert stateful tracking, navigational tracking, fingerprinting, covert tracking, and other unknown techniques that do not fall under these categories. WebKit will limit the capability of using a tracking technique in case it is not possible to prevent it without any undue harm to the user. If this also does not help, users will be asked for their consent.
Apple will treat any attempt to subvert the anti-tracking methods as a security vulnerability. “We treat circumvention of shipping anti-tracking measures with the same seriousness as an exploitation of security vulnerabilities,” Apple wrote. It warns to add more restrictions without prior notice against parties who attempt to circumvent the tracking prevention methods.
Apple further mentioned that there won’t be any exception even if you have a valid use for a technique that is also used for tracking. The announcement reads, “But WebKit often has no technical means to distinguish valid uses from tracking, and doesn’t know what the parties involved will do with the collected data, either now or in the future.”
WebKit Tracking Prevention Policy’s unintended impact
With the implementation of this policy, Apple warns of certain unintended repercussions as well. Among the possibly affected features are funding websites using targeted or personalized advertising, federated login using a third-party login provider, fraud prevention, and more.
In cases of tradeoffs, WebKit will prioritize user benefits over current website practices. Apple promises to limit this unintended impact and might update the tracking prevention methods to permit certain use cases. In the future, it will also come up with new web technologies that will allow these practices without comprising the user online privacy such as Storage Access API and Privacy-Preserving Ad Click Attribution.
What users are saying about Apple’s anti-tracking policy
A time when there is increasing concern regarding user online privacy, this policy comes as a blessing. Many users are appreciating this move, while some do fear that this will affect some of the user-friendly features.
In an ongoing discussion on Hacker News, a user commented, “The fact that this makes behavioral targeting even harder makes me very happy.” Some others also believe that focusing on online tracking protection methods will give browsers an edge over Google’s Chrome. A user said, “One advantage of Google’s dominance and their business model being so reliant on tracking, is that it’s become the moat for its competitors: investing energy into tracking protection is a good way for them to gain a competitive advantage over Google, since it’s a feature that Google will not be able to copy. So as long as Google’s competitors remain in business, we’ll probably at least have some alternatives that take privacy seriously.”
When asked about the added restrictions that will be applied if a party is found circumventing tracking prevention, a member of the WebKit team commented, “We’re willing to do specifically targeted mitigations, but only if we have to. So far, nearly everything we’ve done has been universal or algorithmic. The one exception I know of was to delete tracking data that had already been planted by known circumventors, at the same time as the mitigation to stop anyone else from using that particular hole (HTTPS supercookies).”
Some users had questions about the features that will be impacted by the introduction of this policy. A user wrote, “While I like the sentiment, I hate that Safari drops cookies after a short period of non-use. I wind up having to re-login to sites constantly while Chrome does it automatically.” Another user added, “So what is going to happen when Apple succeeds in making it impossible to make any money off advertisements shown to iOS users on the web? I’m currently imagining a future where publishers start to just redirect iOS traffic to install their app, where they can actually make money. Good news for the walled garden, I guess?”
Read Apple’s official announcement, to know more about the WebKit Tracking Prevention Policy.