11 min read

Cloud-native applications are an assembly of independent services used to build new applications, optimize existing ones, and connect them in such a way that the applications can skillfully deliver the desired result. More specifically, they are employed to build scalable and fault-tolerant applications in public, private, or hybrid clouds. 

Launched in March this year, Quarkus, a new Kubernetes-native framework launched its first stable version, Quarkus 1.0 last month. Quarkus allows Java developers to combine the power of containers, microservices, and cloud-native to build reliable applications. To get a more clear understanding of Cloud-Native Applications with Java and Quarkus, we interviewed Francesco Marchioni, a Red Hat Certified JBoss Administrator (RHCJA) and Sun Certified Enterprise Architect (SCEA) working at Red Hat. Francesco is the author of the book ‘Hands-On Cloud-Native Applications with Java and Quarkus’. 

Francesco on Quarkus 1.0 and how Quarkus is bringing Java into the modern microservices and serverless modes of developing

Quarkus is coming up with its first stable version Quarkus 1.0 at the end of this month. It is expected to have features like a new reactive core based on Vert.x, a non-blocking security layer, and a new Quarkus ecosystem called ‘universe’. What are you most excited about in Quarkus 1.0? What are your favorite features in Quarkus?

One of my favorite features of Quarkus is the reactive core ecosystem which supports both reactive and imperative programming models, letting Quarkus handle the execution model switch for you. This is one of the biggest gains you will enjoy when moving from a monolithic core, which is inherently based on synchronous executions, to a reactive environment that follows events and not just a loop of instructions. I also consider of immense value that the foundation of Quarkus API is a well-known set of APIs that I was already skilled with, therefore I could ramp up and write a book about it in less than one year!

How does the Quarkus Java framework compare with Spring? How do you think the Spring API compatibility in Quarkus 1.0 will help developers?

Both Quarkus and Spring boot offer a powerful stack of technologies and tools to build Java applications. In general terms, Quarkus inherits its core features from the Java EE, with CDI and JAX-RS being the most evident example. On the other hand, Spring boot follows an alternative modular architecture based on the Spring core. In terms of Microservices, they also differ as Quarkus leverages the Microprofile API while Spring Boot relies on Spring Boot Actuator and Netflix Hystrix.


Besides the different stacks, Quarkus has some unique features available out of the box such as Build time class initialization, Kubernetes resources generation and GraalVM native images support. Although there are no official benchmarks, in the typical case of a REST Service built with Quarkus, you can observe an RSS memory reduction to half and a 5x increase in boot speed.

In terms of compatibility, it’s worth mentioning that, while users are encouraged to use CDI annotations for your applications, Quarkus provides a compatibility layer for Spring dependency injection (e.g. @Autowired) in the form of the spring-di extension.

Quarkus is tailored for GraalVM and crafted by best-of-breed Java libraries and standards. How do you think Quarkus brings Java into the modern microservices and serverless modes of developing? Also, why do you think Java continues to be a top programming language for back-end enterprise developers?

Although native code execution, in combination with GraalVM, Quarkus is an amazing opportunity for Java. I mean I wouldn’t say Quarkus is just native centric as it immediately buys to Java developers an RSS memory reduction to about half, an increase in boot speed, top Garbage Collector performance, plus a set of libraries that are tailored for the JDK. This makes Java a first-class citizen in the microservices ecosystem and I bet it will continue to be one of the top programming languages still for many years.

On how his book will benefit Java developers and architects

In your book “Hands-On Cloud-Native Applications with Java and Quarkus” you have demonstrated advanced application development techniques such as Reactive Programming, Message Streaming, Advanced configuration hacks. Apart from these, what are the other techniques that can be used for managing advanced application development in Quarkus? Also, apart from the use cases in your book, what other areas/domains can you use Quarkus?

In terms of configuration, a whole chapter of the book explores the advanced configuration options which are derived from the MicroProfile config API and the Applications’ profile management, which is a convenient way to shift the configuration options from one environment to another- think for example how easy can be with Quarkus to switch from a Production DB to a Development or Test Database.

Besides the use cases discussed in the book, I’d say Quarkus is rather polyvalent, based on the number of extensions that are already available. For example, you can easily extend the example provided in the last chapter, which is about Streaming Data, with advanced transformation patterns and routes provided by the camel extension, thus leveraging the most common integration scenarios.

What does your book aim to share with readers? Who will benefit the most from your book? How will your book help Java developers and architects in understanding the microservice architecture?

This book is a log of my journey through the Quarkus Land which started exactly one year ago, at its very first internal preview by our engineers. Therefore my first aim is to ignite the same passion to the readers, whatever is their “maturity level” in the IT. I believe developers and architects from the Java Enterprise trenches will enjoy the fastest path to learning Quarkus as many extensions are pretty much the same they have been using for years. Nevertheless, I believe any young developer with a passion for learning can quickly get on board and become proficient with Quarkus by the end of this book.

One advantage of younger developers over seasoned ones, like me, is that it will be easier for them to start thinking in terms of services instead of building up monolithic giant applications like we used to do for years. Although microservices patterns are not the main focus of this book, a lot of work has been done to demonstrate how to connect services and not just how to build them up.

On how Red Hat uses Quarkus in its products and service

Red Hat is already using Quarkus in their products and services. How is it helping Red Hat in increasing the efficiency of your Cloud-Native applications?

To be precise, Quarkus is not yet a Red Hat supported Product, but it has already reached an important milestone with the release Quarkus 1.0 final, so it will definitely be included in the list of our supported products, according to our internal productization road-map.

That being said, Red Hat is working in increasing the efficiency of your Cloud-Native applications in several ways through a combination of practices, technologies, processes that can be summarized in the following steps that will eventually lead to cloud-native application success:

  • Evolve a DevOps culture and practices to embrace new technology through tighter collaboration.
  • Speed up existing, monolithic applications with simple migration processes that will eventually lead to microservices or mini services.
  • Use ready-to-use developer tools such as application services, to speed up the development of business logic. Openshift tools (web and CLI) is an example of it.
  • Choose the right tool for the right application by using a container-based application platform that supports a large mix of frameworks, languages, and architectures.
  • Provide self-service, on-demand infrastructure for developers using containers and container orchestration technology to simplify access to the underlying infrastructure, give control and visibility to IT operations, and provide application lifecycle management across environments.
  • Automate IT to accelerate application delivery using clear service requirements definition, self-service catalogs that empower users (such as the Container catalog) and metering, monitoring of runtime processes.
  • Implement continuous delivery and advanced deployment techniques to accelerate the delivery of your cloud-native applications.
  • Evolve your applications into a modular architecture by choosing a design that fits your specific needs, such as microservices, a monolith-first approach, or mini services.

On Quarkus’ cloud-native security and its competitors

Cloud-native applications provide customers with a better time-to-market strategy and also allows them to build, more robust, resilient, scalable, and cost-effective applications. However, they also come with a big risk of potential security breaches. What is your take on cloud-native security for cloud-native applications? Also, what are your thoughts on future-proofing cloud applications?

Traditionally, IT security was focused on hardening and the datacenter perimeter—but today, with Cloud applications, that perimeter is fading out. Public and hybrid clouds are shifting responsibility for security and regulatory compliance across the vendors. The adoption of containers at scale requires the adoption of new methods of analyzing, securing, and updating the delivery of applications.

As a result, static security policies don’t scale well for containers in the enterprise but need to move to a new concept of security called “continuous container security”. This includes some key aspects such as securing the container pipeline and the application, securing the container deployment environment(s) and infrastructure, integrating with enterprise security tools and meeting or enhancing existing security policies.

About future-proofing of cloud applications, I believe proper planning and diligence can ensure that a company’s cloud investments withstand future change or become future-proof. It needs to be understood that new generation applications (such as apps for social, gaming and generally mobile apps) have different requirements and generate different workloads. This new generation of applications requires a substantial amount of dynamic scaling and elasticity that would be quite expensive or impossible to achieve with traditional architectures based on old data centers and bare-metal machines.

Micronaut and Helidon, the other two frameworks that support GraalVM native images and target cloud-native microservices are often compared to Quarkus. In what aspects are they similar? And in what ways is Quarkus better than and/or different from the other two?  

Although it is challenging to compare a set of cutting edge frameworks as some factors might vary in a middle/long term perspective, in general terms I’d say that Quarkus provides the highest level of flexibility especially if you want to combine reactive programming model with the imperative programming model. Also, Quarkus builds on the top of well-known APIs such as CDI, JAX-RS, and Microprofile API, and uses the standard “javax” namespaces to access them. Hence, the transition from the former Enterprise application is quite smooth compared with competitive products.

Micronaut too has some interesting features such as support for multiple programming languages (Java, Kotlin, and Groovy the latter being exclusive of Micronaut) and a powerful Command Line Interface (CLI) to generate projects. (A CLI is not yet available in Quarkus, although there are plans to include it in the upcoming versions of it).

On the other hand, Helidon is the less polyglot alternative (supports only Java right now) yet, it features a clean and simple approach to Container by providing a self-contained Dockerfile that can be built by simply calling docker build, not requiring anything locally (except the Docker tool of course). Also, the fact that Helidon plays well with GraalVM should be acknowledged as they are both official Oracle products. So, although for new projects the decision is often a matter of personal preferences and individual skills in your team, I’d say that Quarkus leverages existing Java Enterprise experience for faster results.

If you want to become an expert in building Cloud-Native applications with Java and Quarkus, learn the end-to-end development guide presented in the book “Hands-On Cloud-Native Applications with Java and Quarkus”. This book will also help you in understanding a wider range of distributed application architectures to use a full-stack framework and give you a headsup on the new features in Quarkus 1.0.

About the author

Francesco Marchioni is a Red Hat Certified JBoss Administrator (RHCJA) and Sun Certified Enterprise Architect (SCEA) working at Red Hat in Rome, Italy. He started learning Java in 1997, and since then he has followed all the newest application program interfaces released by Sun. In 2000, he joined the JBoss community, when the application server was running the 2.X release.

He has spent years as a software consultant, where he has enabled many successful software migrations from vendor platforms to open source products, such as JBoss AS, fulfilling the tight budget requirements necessitated by the current economy. Francesco also manages a blog on ‘WildFly Application Server, Openshift, JBoss Projects and Enterprise Applications‘ focused on Java and JBoss technologies. You can reach him on Twitter and LinkedIn.

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