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At Open Source Technology Summit (OSTS) 2019, Josh Triplett, a Principal Engineer at Intel gave an insight into what Intel is contributing to bring the most loved language, Rust to full parity with C. In his talk titled Intel and Rust: the Future of Systems Programming, he also spoke about the history of systems programming, how C became the “default” systems programming language, what features of Rust gives it an edge over C, and much more.

Until now, OSTS was Intel’s closed event where the company’s business and tech leaders come together to discuss the various trends, technologies, and innovations that will help shape the open-source ecosystem. However, this year was different as the company welcomed non-Intel attendees including media, partners, and developers for the first time.

The event hosts keynotes, more than 50 technical sessions, panels, demos covering all the open source technologies Intel is involved in. These include integrated software stacks (edge, AI, infrastructure), firmware, embedded and IoT projects, and cloud system software. This year the event happened from May 14-16 at Stevenson, Washington.

What is systems programming

Systems programming is the development and management of software that serves as a platform for other software to be built upon. The system software also directly or closely interfaces with computer hardware in order to gain necessary performance and expose abstractions. Unlike application programming where software is created to provide services to the user, it aims to produce software that provides services to the computer hardware.


Triplett broadly defines systems programming as “anything that isn’t an app.” It includes things like BIOS, firmware, boot loaders, operating systems kernels, embedded and similar types of low-level code, virtual machine implementations. Triplett also counts a web browser as a system software as it is more than “just an app,” they are actually “platforms for websites and web apps,” he says.

How C became the “default” systems programming language

Previously, most system software including BIOS, boot loaders, and firmware were written in Assembly. In the 1960s, experiments to bring hardware support in high-level languages started, which resulted in the creation of languages such as PL/S, BLISS, BCPL, and extended ALGOL.

Then in the 1970s, Dennis Ritchie created the C programming language for the Unix operating system. Derived from the typeless B programming language, C was packed with powerful high-level functionalities and detailed features that were best suited for writing an operating system. Several UNIX components including its kernel were eventually rewritten in C. Many other system software including the Oracle database, a large portion of Windows source code, Linux operating system, were all written in C.

C was seeing a huge adoption at this point. But, what exactly made developers comfortable moving to C? Triplett believes that in order to make this move from one language to another, developers have to be comfortable in terms of two things: features and parity.

  • First, the language should offer “sufficiently compelling” features. “It can’t just be a little bit better. It has to be substantially better to warrant the effort and engineering time needed to move,” he adds. As compared to Assembly, C had a lot to offer. It had some degree of type safety, provided portability, better productivity with high-level constructs, and much more readable code.
  • Second, the language has to provide parity, which means developers had to be confident that it is no less capable than Assembly. He states, “It can’t just be better, it also has to be no worse.” In addition to being faster and expressing any type of data that Assembly was able to, it also had what Triplett calls “escape hatch.”  This means you are allowed to make the move incrementally and also combine Assembly if required.

Triplett believes that C is now becoming what Assembly was years ago. “C is the new Assembly,” he concludes. Developers are looking for a high-level language that not only addresses the problems in C that can’t be fixed but also leverage other exciting features that these languages provide. Such a language that aims to be compelling enough to make developers move from C should be memory safe, provide automatic memory management,  security, and much more.

Any language that wants to be better than C has to offer a lot more than just protection from buffer overflows if it’s actually going to be a compelling alternative. People care about usability and productivity. They care about writing code that is self-explanatory, which accomplishes more work in less code. It also needs to address security issues. Usability and productivity go hand in hand with security. The less code you need to write to accomplish something, the less chance you have of introducing bugs security bugs or otherwise,” he explains.

Comparing Rust with C

Back in 2006, Graydon Hoare, a Mozilla employee started writing Rust as a personal project. Mozilla, in 2009, started sponsoring the project and also expanded the team to drive further development of the language.

One of the reasons why Mozilla got interested is that Firefox was written in more than 4 million lines of C++ code and had quite a bit of highly critical vulnerabilities. Rust was built with safety and concurrency in mind making it the perfect choice for rewriting many components of Firefox under Project Quantum. It is also using Rust to develop Servo, an HTML rendering engine that will eventually replace Firefox’s rendering engine. Many other companies have also started using Rust for their projects including Microsoft, Google, Facebook, Amazon, Dropbox, Fastly, Chef, Baidu, and more.

Rust addresses the memory management problem in C. It offers automatic memory management so that developers do not have to manually call free on every object. What sets it apart from other modern languages is that it does not have a garbage collector or runtime system of any kind. Rust instead has the concepts of ownership, borrowing, references, and lifetimes. “Rust has a system of declaring whether any given use of an object is the owner of that object or whether it’s just borrowing that object temporarily. If you’re just borrowing an object the compiler will keep track of that. It’ll make sure that the original sticks around as long as you reference it. Rust makes sure that the owner of the object frees it when it’s done and it inserts the call to free at compile time with no extra runtime overhead,” Triplett explains.

Not having a runtime is also a plus for Rust. Triplett believes that languages that have a runtime are difficult to use as a system programming language. He adds, “You have to initialize that runtime before you can call any code, you have to use that runtime to call functions, and the runtime itself might run extra code behind your back at unexpected times.

Rust also aims to provide safe concurrent programming. The same features that make it memory safe, keep track of things like which thread own which object, which objects can be passed between threads, and which objects require acquiring locks.

These features make Rust compelling enough for developers to choose for systems programming. However, talking about the second criteria, Rust does not have enough parity with C yet.

“Achieving parity with C is exactly what got me involved in Rust,” says Triplett

Teaching Rust about C compatible unions

Triplett’s first contribution to the Rust programming language was in the form of the 1444 RFC, which was started in 2015 and got accepted in 2016. This RFC proposed to bring native support for C-compatible unions in Rust that would be defined via a new “contextual keyword” union. Triplett understood the need for this proposal when he wanted to build a virtual machine in Rust and the Linux kernel interface for that /dev/kvm required unions.

I worked with the Rust community and with the language team to get unions into Rust and because of that work I’m actually now part of the Rust language governance team helping to evaluate and guide other changes into the language,” he adds.

He talked about this RFC in much detail at the very first RustConf in 2016:

Support for unnamed struct and union types

Another feature that Triplett worked on was the support for unnamed struct and union types in Rust. This has been a widespread C compiler extension for decades and was also included in the C11 standard. This allowed developers to group and layout fields in arbitrary ways to match C data structures used in the Foreign Function Interface (FFI). With this proposal implemented, Rust will be able to represent such types using the same names as the structures without interposing artificial field names that will confuse users of well-established interfaces from existing platforms.

A stabilized support for inline Assembly in Rust

Systems programming often involves low-level manipulations and requires low-level details of the processors such as privileged instructions. For this, Rust supports using inline Assembly via the ‘asm!’ macro. However, it is only present in the nightly compiler and not yet stabilized. Triplett in a collaboration with other Rust developers is writing a proposal to introduce more robust syntax for inline Assembly. To know more in detail about support for inline Assembly, check out this pre-RFC.

BFLOAT16 support into Rust

Many Intel processors including Xeon Scalable ‘Cooper Lake-SP’ now support BFLOAT16, a new floating-point format. This truncated 16-bit version of the 32-bit IEEE 754 single-precision floating-point format was mainly designed for deep learning. This format is also used in machine learning libraries like Tensorflow that work with huge datasets. It also makes interoperating with existing systems, functions, and storage much easier. This is why Triplett is working on adding support for BFLOAT16 in Rust so that developers would be able to use the full capabilities of their hardware.

FFI/C Parity Working Group

This was one of the important announcements that Triplett made. He is starting a working group that will focus on achieving full parity with C. Under this group, he aims to collaborate with both the Rust community and other Intel developers to develop the specifications for the remaining features that need to be implemented in Rust for system programming. This group will also focus on bringing support for systems programming using the stable releases of Rust, not just experimental nightly releases of the compiler.

In last week’s Reddit discussion, Triplett shared the current status of the working group, “To pre-answer, one question: the FFI / C Parity working group is in the process of being launched, and hasn’t quite kicked off yet. I’ll be posting about it here and elsewhere when it is, along with the initial goals.

Watch Josh Triplett’s full OSTS talk to know more about Intel’s contribution to Rust:

Update: We have made the following corrections based on feedback from Josh Triplett:

This year OSTS was open to Intel’s partners and press.

Previously, the article read ‘escape patch’, but it is ‘escape hatch.’

RFC 1444 wasn’t last year, it was started in 2015 and accepted in 2016.

‘dev KVM’ is now corrected to ‘/dev/kvm’

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