4 min read

Have you been itching to learn a new programming language? Maybe you want to learn your first programming language and don’t know what to choose. When learning a new language (especially your first language) you want to minimize the amount of unknowns that you will have. So you may want to choose a programming language that is simpler. Or maybe you are up for a challenge and want to learn something difficult! Today we are going to answer the question: What makes programming languages simple or complex?

Previous experience

The amount of experience you have programming or learning different programming concepts can greatly impact how well you learn a new language. If this is your tenth programming language you will have most likely seen plenty of the content before in the new language so that can greatly reduce the complexity. On the other hand, if this is your first language, you will be learning many new concepts and ideas that are natural to programming and that may make the language seem more complex than it probably is.

Takeaway: The more programming experience you have, the lower the chances a programming language will be complex to you.


The way you need to write code for that language can really affect the complexity. Some languages have many syntax rules that can be a nuisance when learning and will leave you confused.

Other languages have fewer rules that will make it easier to understand for someone not familiar to the language. Additionally, for those with previous experience, if the new language has similar syntax to the old language it will help in the learning process.

Another factor similar to syntax is how the code looks to the user. In my experience, the more the code has variable/function names that resemble the English language, the easier it is to understand it.

Takeaway: The more syntax rules the more difficult a language can be to learn.

Built-in functionality

The next factor is how much built-in functionality a language has. If the language has been around for years and is being continuously updated, chances are it has plenty of helper functions and plenty of functionality. In the case of some newer languages, they might not have as much built-in functionality that allows you to develop easier.

Takeaway: Generally, languages with more functionalitybuilt-in will make it easier to implement what you need in code.


The fourth topic we are going to discuss here is concepts. That is, what programming concepts does this language use? There are plenty out there like object oriented programming, memory management, inheritance and more. Depending on what concepts are used in the language as well as your previous understanding of a concept, you could either really struggle with learning the language, or you could potentially find it easier than most.

Takeaway: Your previous experience with specific concepts and the complexity of the concepts in the language could affect the complexity of the language as a whole.

Frameworks & libraries

Frameworks and libraries are very similar to built-in functionality. Frameworks and libraries are developed to make something in the language easier or to simplify a task that you would normally have to do yourself in code. So, with more frameworks you could make development easier than normal.

Takeaway: If a language has plenty of support from libraries and frameworks, the language will decrease in complexity.


Our last topic here is arguably the most important. Ultimately, without high-quality documentation it can be very hard to learn a language. When looking for resources on a language, check out books, blog posts, tutorials, videos, documentation and forums for making sure there are plenty of resources on the topic.

Takeaway: The more high-quality resources out there on the programming language, the easier it will be to learn. 

When deciding on what programming languages are complex or simple, it truly depends on a few factors: your previous experience, the syntax of the language, built-in functionality, the concepts used, frameworks for support, and high-quality resources available.

About the Author 

Antonio Cucciniello is a Software Engineer with a background in C, C++ and JavaScript (Node.Js) from New Jersey.   His most recent project called Edit Docs is an Amazon Echo skill that allows users to edit Google Drive files using your voice.  He loves building cool things with software, reading books on self-help and improvement, finance, and entrepreneurship. Follow him on twitter @antocucciniello, and follow him on GitHub here: https://github.com/acucciniello


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