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Traditionally, web applications have been developed using the request/response model followed by the HTTP protocol. In this model, the request is always initiated by the client and then the server returns a response back to the client.

There has never been any way for the server to send data to the client independently (without having to wait for a request from the browser) until now. The WebSocket protocol allows full-duplex, two-way communication between the client (browser) and the server.

Java EE 7 introduces the Java API for WebSocket, which allows us to develop WebSocket endpoints in Java. The Java API for WebSocket is a brand-new technology in the Java EE Standard.

A socket is a two-way pipe that stays alive longer than a single request. Applied to an HTML5-compliant browser, this would allow for continuous communication to or from a web server without the need to load a new page (similar to AJAX).

Developing a WebSocket Server Endpoint

A WebSocket server endpoint is a Java class deployed to the application server that handles WebSocket requests.

There are two ways in which we can implement a WebSocket server endpoint via the Java API for WebSocket: either by developing an endpoint programmatically, in which case we need to extend the javax.websocket.Endpoint class, or by decorating Plain Old Java Objects (POJOs) with WebSocket-specific annotations. The two approaches are very similar; therefore, we will be discussing only the annotation approach in detail and briefly explaining the second approach, that is, developing WebSocket server endpoints programmatically, later in this section.

In this article, we will develop a simple web-based chat application, taking full advantage of the Java API for WebSocket.

Developing an annotated WebSocket server endpoint

The following Java class code illustrates how to develop a WebSocket server endpoint by annotating a Java class:

package net.ensode.glassfishbook.websocketchat.serverendpoint; import java.io.IOException; import java.util.logging.Level; import java.util.logging.Logger; import javax.websocket.OnClose; import javax.websocket.OnMessage; import javax.websocket.OnOpen; import javax.websocket.Session; import javax.websocket.server.ServerEndpoint; @ServerEndpoint("/websocketchat") public class WebSocketChatEndpoint { private static final Logger LOG = Logger.getLogger(WebSocketChatEndpoint
.class.getName()); @OnOpen public void connectionOpened() { LOG.log(Level.INFO, "connection opened"); } @OnMessage public synchronized void processMessage(Session session, String message) { LOG.log(Level.INFO, "received message: {0}", message); try { for (Session sess : session.getOpenSessions()) { if (sess.isOpen()) { sess.getBasicRemote().sendText(message); } } } catch (IOException ioe) { LOG.log(Level.SEVERE, ioe.getMessage()); } } @OnClose public void connectionClosed() { LOG.log(Level.INFO, "connection closed"); } }

The class-level @ServerEndpoint annotation indicates that the class is a WebSocket server endpoint. The URI (Uniform Resource Identifier) of the server endpoint is the value specified within the parentheses following the annotation (which is “/websocketchat” in this example)—WebSocket clients will use this URI to communicate with our endpoint.

The @OnOpen annotation is used to decorate a method that needs to be executed whenever a WebSocket connection is opened by any of the clients. In our example, we are simply sending some output to the server log, but of course, any valid server-side Java code can be placed here.

Any method annotated with the @OnMessage annotation will be invoked whenever our server endpoint receives a message from a client. Since we are developing a chat application, our code simply broadcasts the message it receives to all connected clients.

In our example, the processMessage() method is annotated with @OnMessage, and takes two parameters: an instance of a class implementing the javax.websocket.Session interface and a String parameter containing the message that was received. Since we are developing a chat application, our WebSocket server endpoint simply broadcasts the received message to all connected clients.

The getOpenSessions() method of the Session interface returns a set of session objects representing all open sessions. We iterate through this set to broadcast the received message to all connected clients by invoking the getBasicRemote() method on each session instance and then invoking the sendText() method on the resulting RemoteEndpoint.Basic implementation returned by calling the previous method.

The getOpenSessions() method on the Session interface returns all the open sessions at the time it was invoked. It is possible for one or more of the sessions to have closed after the method was invoked; therefore, it is recommended to invoke the isOpen() method on a Session implementation before attempting to return data back to the client. An exception may be thrown if we attempt to access a closed session.

Finally, we need to decorate a method with the @OnClose annotation in case we need to handle the event when a client disconnects from the server endpoint. In our example, we simply log a message into the server log.

There is one additional annotation that we didn’t use in our example—the @OnError annotation; it is used to decorate a method that needs to be invoked in case there’s an error while sending or receiving data to or from the client.

As we can see, developing an annotated WebSocket server endpoint is straightforward. We simply need to add a few annotations, and the application server will invoke our annotated methods as necessary.

If we wish to develop a WebSocket server endpoint programmatically, we need to write a Java class that extends javax.websocket.Endpoint. This class has the onOpen(), onClose(), and onError() methods that are called at appropriate times during the endpoint’s life cycle. There is no method equivalent to the @OnMessage annotation to handle incoming messages from clients. The addMessageHandler() method needs to be invoked in the session, passing an instance of a class implementing the javax.websocket.MessageHandler interface (or one of its subinterfaces) as its sole parameter.

In general, it is easier and more straightforward to develop annotated WebSocket endpoints compared to their programmatic counterparts. Therefore, we recommend that you use the annotated approach whenever possible.


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