8 min read

Everyone should learn to code, right? If everyone learned programming not only would people have better jobs, the economy would be growing, and ultimately we’d all have far superior lives to the ones we lead now.

Except – clearly – that’s just not true. Yes, perhaps that position is a bit of a caricature, but it’s one that isn’t that uncommon. Lawmakers talk about the importance of making programming and coding part of the curriculum, and are keen to make loud and enthusiastic noises about investing in STEM subjects. We need more engineers to power the digital economy, the thinking goes.

While introducing children to code certainly isn’t a bad thing, this way of viewing the world is pretty damaging – not least to those already in engineering roles and those organizations that depend on them.

This is because is reduces the activity of writing code to something simple. It turns programming, a complex and ultimately deeply human activity into something more machine like. It almost suggests it’s just a question of writing letters and numbers into a code editor and then just watching the whole thing run. Programming might involve working with machines, but in truth its anything but machine-like.


For business leaders, failing to understand what programming actually involves can lead to a really poor engineering culture. A reductive view of the work that software engineers do mean increased pressure, more burnout and lower quality software being delivered.

In turn, that has a negative impact on the bottom line. It might not be immediately apparent but poor software means code rewrites, poor user experiences, and high turnover of personnel. That costs money because organizations will be spending valuable time and energy trying to fix mistakes of the past.

We need to keep an open mind about what it means to “learn programming”

However, with a more open minded perspective on what it actually means to be a programmer, and what ‘learning programming’ actually means, you can build a much more productive engineering culture. This involves not only respecting the learning process, but also recognising that learning isn’t about just taking a course or doing a live coding exercise.

It does, in fact, involve a much more diverse range of activities. Let’s look at what some of them are.

Evaluating software

One of the most important parts of a software developers work is evaluating software. This can happen in various ways.

Most obviously, technology leaders (CTOs, Principal Architects, Development Leads) have to evaluate different tools and platforms before they implement a project. Questions here will revolve primarily around cost, but it certainly won’t be the leadership team’s sole concern. Other issues like integration, product capabilities, even the learning curve and level of complexity will need to be considered (will we need to hire specialist engineers or can our existing team pick it up quickly?).

Perhaps that all sounds obvious, but too often we forget that this is work that needs to be done. To make these sorts of assessments – which are often business critical – individuals will need a high degree of knowledge. Without it they can’t be confident that they’re making the right decision for the business. In this sense then, learning about technologies is just as important as the process of learning how to use technologies. Some might say it’s even more important.

It’s not only senior developers and tech leaders that evaluate software

Evaluating software is by no means a task limited to those in senior positions. Developers and engineers who spend the majority of their time shipping code will still need to learn about technologies too. They might not be responsible for architecting a new software system or purchasing PaaS products, but they will have to make personal decisions about what tools they use to solve specific problems.

This might sometimes be about the tools they use to boost their productivity and better manage their development workflow, but it isn’t limited to that. In broad terms it’s about having an open mind about the range of approaches that can be taken to new challenges.

This means that all technology professionals need to learn about technologies – how they work, how they compare to one another, and even what the trade offs between them are. This shouldn’t be treated as an additional extra, but instead as a fundamental part of the learning process.

Read next: Developers are today’s technology decision makers

Programming techniques and design principles

When talking about learning it’s easy to fall into a trap where we privilege practice over theory. Theory, certain lines of thinking go, is self-indulgent, unnecessary, and time-consuming. What’s really important is that people can simply start getting their hands dirty and learn by doing.

While it’s true that the practical dimension of learning is vital – in technology or any other field – we overlook theory at our peril. In reality, theory and practice should go together. Practice should be a way of illuminating the theory and theory should be a way of explaining why something works the way it does, or why you should do something in a certain way.

Think of it this way: if everyone only learned through practice, we’d all be incapable of applying our skills and knowledge to new problems and challenges. We’d be fixed in our mindset, more like machines than creative human beings.

For developers and software engineers this is particularly true. By understanding the principles behind how something works, it becomes much easier to apply solutions to new contexts or even reconfigure them in ways that are appropriate and effective.

Improving software with design-led principles

Programming techniques and philosophies, like functional or object oriented programming, for example, can help developers and engineers to write code in a specific way, helping them to unlock greater performance and efficiency (both personally and from a technical perspective). Similarly, design patterns also provide a way for thinking about your code in a predetermined way in relation to various commonly occurring problems.

It’s true that this still requires developers to get close to code. But this is actually a level of abstraction above the practice of writing code that allows developers to think critically about what they do. So, while a good way to learn these sorts of principles is to see what it looks like in practice, it’s still essential for developers to have a robust conceptual understanding of what this means in practice.

Understanding users and business needs

Software doesn’t exist in a vacuum. On one side there’s the business, on the other there’s a user. It sounds obvious, but it’s essential that technology professionals are sensitive to these two contextual elements. Business needs and user needs are what ultimately make their work meaningful.

In practice, this doesn’t mean people working in technology all need to go and take an MBA. But they do need to have a clear conceptual understanding of how software development and software systems should align with the needs of both internal stakeholders (ie. the business), and users.

This isn’t always easy to learn, and there’s no manual for how it should be done. However, it fits across the two points we mentioned above. The software we decide to use, and the way we decide to use it will always be informed by the needs of both the business and users. What this means in practice, then, is that learning about software needs to be informed by the wider context of what that software is for, and what a business is trying to achieve.

Some technology professionals enter the industry possessing this kind of awareness and sensitivity. Many others, however, do not, and for these people it’s essential that they have the space to understand how the various facets of the work they do are connected to real-life consequences. Writing code doesn’t help you to do that. Taking a step back and understanding the context in which that code is being written can and will.

Read next: 6 reasons why employers should pay for their developers’ training and learning resources

Conclusion: Great programming requires a combination of theoretical knowledge and practical talent

The opposition between theory and practice is false. It doesn’t help anyone. A culture of ‘getting stuff done’ and shipping code regardless is not only bad for individual developers, it can also be damaging at an organizational level. Without a careful consideration of what you’re trying to achieve, how software can help you to do it, and what it requires to execute it effectively, organizations can become prone to error and mistakes. This leads to wasted time and, more importantly, wasted money.

While Facebook’s mantra of ‘move fast and break things’ might sound like the defining phrase of the modern tech industry, good developers need both space and resources to think, plan, and conceptualize. This doesn’t mean we all need to go slow. Instead, it means we need to try to empower engineers to do the right thing, not the quick thing.

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