We have moved lightyears away from the the handheld gaming days. The good old Tetris and Mario games were easy to use, low on graphics, super difficult to program in-spite of their apparent simpler appearance. Although it’s difficult to trace back to the language in which all of these games were written, many of them were written in the C family of languages, which contributed to the difficulty in programming them.
Rust has been touted as one of the successors of C. Which in-turn brings the question back – if C was difficult for coding, then how exactly is Rust going to be different?
The answer of this question lies in the approach of Rust. Rust was designed primarily as a systems programming language by the Mozilla Foundation. The primary game development language over the past 20 years have been C/C++ majorly. Rust brings a fresh change in approach – from Object Oriented to Data Oriented.
The problem with object oriented programming was summarized nicely by Catherine West from Chucklefish. According to her, treating game elements like NPC, game worlds, as Objects might work well at a small level. But when you are trying to create your own game engine, then treating game elements as Objects will imply creating a lot of super sized objects with complex layers of dependencies.
The Rust approach, on the other hand, is data oriented. This implies that every element is treated as data. This simplifies the process of creating midsized game engines a lot. Chucklefish being a significant name in 2D game development, this statement from Catherine West comes as a major boost for developers who want to use Rust for developing 2D games. She has although expressed her doubts on using Rust for 3D game development.
Another important personality who has recently come out in support of Rust is Andrea Pessino – CTO of Ready at Dawn. Ready at Dawn is a well established game studio known for games such as The Order: 1886, Daxter and various God of War titles. His tweet read like this.
This is another feather in Rust’s cap for game development.
The present state of game development in Rust is quite encouraging. There are quite a few low level graphical libraries like GFX. GFX is a low-level abstraction layer over platform specific graphical interfaces (OpenGL, Metal, Vulkan). It offers some handy wrapper over windows backend (glutin the Rust one, or wrapper around Vulkan system, GLFW and more). GFX is still at a very early stage of development with the present version being 0.17.
Although major game engines like Unity, and Unreal are yet to support Rust for game development, there exist a few complete game engines which allow you to create complete games with Rust using their framework.
The first one is Piston. It is the oldest game engine for Rust. It is also the most stable and one with great documentation. However, many people find Piston confusing and hard to use as it is super-modular by design. Sometimes it is even hard to understand which module to load for achieving a certain goal or build a certain component of a game.
Amethyst is a more recent game engine/framework inspired by commercial monolithic game engines. It comes with all the necessary dependencies in its package. However it is evolving quickly and hence the present documentation is already outdated. However there is a vibrant community which is looking to include more and more developers into its foray. Hence this gives an opportunity to new developers to get into game development with Rust and get involved with a game engine also.
GGEZ is a simple 2D game engine inspired by the LÖVE engine. This library is more suited at creating simple 2D games for hobbyists. GGEZ is also very new and changes quickly. The design simplicity is an incentive for indie developers and hobbyists to start creating games with it.
Some other popular libraries include:
- noise-rs / a noise generator
- rlua / High level bindings between Rust and Lua
- sfxr / Reimplementation of DrPetter’s “sfxr” sound effect generator as a Rust library
The conclusion that we can draw from here is that Rust has a lot of promise when it comes to game development. With the data oriented approach, easy memory management and access to low level performance enhancement techniques, Rust can become a full fledged game development language in the near future.