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Exploring Module Development in AngularJS

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This started off as an article about building a simple ScrollSpy module. Simplicity got away from me however, so I’ll focus on some of the more interesting bits and pieces that make this module tick! You may wish to have the completed code with you as you read this to see how it fits together as a whole – as well as the missing code and logic.

Modular applications are those that are “composed of a set of highly decoupled, distinct pieces of functionality stored in modules” (Addy Osmani). By having loose coupling between modules, the application becomes easier to maintain and functionality can be easily swapped in and out.

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As such, the functionality of our module will be strictly limited to the activation of one element when another is deemed to be viewable by the user. Linking, smooth scrolling, and other features that navigation elements might have, won’t be covered.

Let’s build a ScrollSpy module!

Let’s start by defining a new module. Using a chained sequence rather than declaring a variable for the module is preferable so you don’t pollute the global scope. This also saves you when other modules have used the same var.

'use strict';
angular.module('ngScrollSpy', []);

I’m all about making modules that are dead simple to implement for the developer. We don’t need superfluous parents, attributes, and controller requirements! All we need is:

  1. A directive (scrollspyBroadcast) that sits on each content section and determines whether it’s been scrolled to (active and added to stack) or not.
  2. A directive (scrollspyListen) that sits on each navigation (or whatever) element and listens for changes to the stack—triggering a class if it is the current active element.

We’ll use a factory (SpyFactory) to deal with the stack (adding to, removing from, and broadcasting change).

The major issue with a ScrollSpy module (particularly in Angular) is dynamic content. We could use MutationObservers —but they aren’t widely supported and polling is just bad form. Let’s just leverage scrolling itself to update element positions. We could also take advantage of $rootScope.$watch to watch for any digest calls received by $rootScope, but it hasn’t been included in the version this article will link to.

To save every single scrollspyBroadcast directive from calculating documentHeight and window positions/heights, another factory (PositionFactory) will deal with these changes. This will be done via a scroll event in a run block.

This is a basic visualization of how our module is going to interact:

Angular JS flowchart

Adding module-wide configuration

By using value, provider, and config blocks, module-wide configuration can be implemented without littering our view with data attributes, having a superfluous parent wrapper, or the developer needing to alter the module file. The value block acts as the default configuration for the module.

.value('config', {
    'offset': 200,
    'throttle': true,
    'delay': 100
  })

The provider block allows us to expose API for application-wide configuration. Here we are exposing config, which the developer will be able to set in the config block.

.provider('scrollspyConfig', function() {
  var self = this;
  this.config = {};
  this.$get = function() {
    var extend = {};
    extend.config = self.config;
    return extend;
  };
  return this;
});

The user of the ScrollSpy module can now implement a config block in their application. The scrollspyConfig provider is injected into it (note, the injected name requires “Provider” on the end)—giving the user access to manipulate the modules configuration from their own codebase.

theDevelopersFancyApp.config(['scrollspyConfigProvider', function(scrollspyConfigProvider) {
    scrollspyConfigProvider.config = {
        offset: 500,
        throttle: false,
        delay: 100
    };
}]);

The value and provider blocks are injected into the necessary directive—config being extended upon by the application settings. (scrollspyConfig.config).

.directive('scrollspyBroadcast', ['config', 'scrollspyConfig', function(config, scrollspyConfig) {
    return {
      link: function() {
        angular.extend(config, scrollspyConfig.config);

        console.log(config.offset) //500

        ...

Updating module-wide properties

It wouldn’t be efficient for all directives to calculate generic values such as the document height and position of the window. We can put this functionality into a service, inject it into a run block, and have it call for updates upon scrolling.

  .run(['PositionFactory', function(PositionFactory) {
    PositionFactory.refreshPositions();
    angular.element(window).bind('scroll', function() {
      PositionFactory.refreshPositions();
    });
  }])

  .factory('PositionFactory', [ function(){
    return {
      'position': [],
      'refreshPositions': function() {
        this.position.documentHeight = //logic
        this.position.windowTop = //logic
        this.position.windowBottom = //logic
      }
    }
  }])

PositionFactory can now be injected into the required directive.

.directive('scrollspyBroadcast', ['config', 'scrollspyConfig', 'PositionFactory', function(config, scrollspyConfig, PositionFactory) {
  return {
    link: function() {

      console.log(PositionFactory.documentHeight); //1337

    ...

Using original element types

<a data-scrollspyListen>Some text!</a>
<span data-scrollspyListen>Some text!</span>
<li data-scrollspyListen>Some text!</li>
<h1 data-scrollspyListen>Some text!</h1>

These should all be valid. The developer shouldn’t be forced to use a specific element when using the scrollspyListendirective. Nor should the view fill with superfluous wrappers to allow the developer to retain their original elements. Fortunately, the template property can take a function (which takes two arguments tElement and tAttrs). This gives access to the element prior to replacement. In this example, transclusion could also be replaced by using element[0].innerText instead. This would remove the added child span that gets created.

.directive('scrollspyListen', ['$timeout', 'SpyFactory', function($timeout, SpyFactory) {
  return {
    replace: true,
    transclude: true,
    template: function(element) {
      var tag = element[0].nodeName;
      return '<' + tag + ' data-ng-transclude></' + tag + '>';
    },

    ...

Show me all of it!

The completed codebase can be found over on GitHub. The version at the time of writing is v3.0.0.

About the Author

Patrick Marabeas is a freelance frontend developer who loves learning and working with cutting edge web technologies. He spends much of his free time developing Angular Modules, such as ng-FitTextng-Slider, and ng-YouTubeAPI. You can follow him on Twitter @patrickmarabeas.

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