The phrase ‘modern web development’ is one that I have clung to during years writing copy for Packt books. But what does it really mean? I know it means something because it sounds right – but there’s still a part of me that feels that it’s a bit vague and empty.
Although it might sound somewhat fluffy the truth is that there probably is such a thing as modern web development. Insofar as the field has changed significantly in a matter of years, and things are different now from how they were in, say, 2013, modern web development can be easily characterised as all the things that are being done in web development in 2019 that are different from 5-10 years ago.
By this I don’t just mean trends like artificial intelligence and mobile development (although those are both important). I’m also talking about the more specific ways in which we actually build web projects.
So, let’s take a look at how we got to where we are and the various ways in which ‘modern web development’ is, well, modern.
The story of modern web development: how we got here
It sounds obvious, but the catalyst for the changes that we currently see in web development today is the rise of mobile.
Mobile and the rise of the web applications
There are a few different parts to this that have got us to where we are today. In the first instance the growth of mobile in the middle part of this decade (around 2013 or 2014) initiated the trend of mobile-first or responsive web design.
Those terms might sound a bit old-hat. If they do, it’s a mark of how quickly the web development world has changed. Primarily, though this was about appearance and UI – making web properties easy to use and navigate on mobile devices, rather than just desktop.
Tools like Bootstrap grew quickly, providing an easy and templated way to build mobile-first and responsive websites. But what began as a trend concerned primarily with appearance later shifted as mobile usage grew. This called for a more sophisticated approach as mobile users came to expect richer and faster web experiences, and businesses a new way to monetize these significant changes user behavior.
Explore Packt’s Bootstrap titles here.
Lightweight apps for data-intensive user experiences
This is where concepts like the single page web app came to the fore. Lightweight and dynamic, and capable of handling data-intensive tasks and changes in state, single page web apps were unique in that they handled logic in the browser rather than on the server. This was arguably a watershed in changing how we think about web development. It was instrumental in collapsing the well-established distinction between backend and front end.
Behind this trend we saw a shift towards new technologies. Node.js quietly emerged on the scene (arguably its only in the last couple of years that its popularity has really exploded), and frameworks like Angular were at the height of their popularity.
Find a massive range of Node.js eBooks and videos on the Packt store.
Full-stack web development
It’s around this time that full stack development started to accelerate as a trend.
Look at Google trends. You can see how searches for the phrase have grown since the beginning of 2012:
If you look closely, it’s around 2015 that the term undergoes a step change in the level of interest. Undoubtedly one of the reasons for this is that the relationship between client and server was starting to shift. This meant the web developer skill set was starting to change as well. As a web developer, you weren’t only concerned with how to build the front end, but also how that front end managed dynamic content and different states.
The rise and fall of Angular
A good corollary to this tale is the fate of AngularJS. While it rose to the top amidst the chaos and confusion of the mid-teens framework bubble, as the mobile revolution matured in a way that gave way to more sophisticated web applications, the framework soon became too cumbersome.
And while Google – the frameworks’ creator – aimed to keep it up to date with Angular 2 and subsequent versions, delays and missteps meant the project lost ground to React.
Explore Packt’s Angular eBooks and videos.
The core elements of modern web development in 2019
So, there are a number of core components to modern web development that have evolved out of industry changes over the last decade. Some of these are tools, some are ideas and approaches. All of them are based on the need to manage a balance of complex requirements with performance and simplicity.
Web Components are the most important element if we’re trying to characterise ‘modern’ web development. The principle is straightforward: Web Components provides a set of reusable custom elements. This makes it easier to build web pages and applications without writing additional lines of code that add complexity to your codebase.
The main thing to keep in mind here is that Web Components improve encapsulation. This concept, which is really about building in a more modular and loosely coupled manner, is crucial when thinking about what makes modern web development modern.
There are three main elements to Web Components:
- The shadow DOM, which acts as a DOM that’s attached to individual elements on your page. This essentially isolates the resources different elements and components need to work on your page which makes it easier to manage from a development perspective, and can unlock better performance for users.
- HTML Templates, which are bits of HTML that can be reused and called upon only when needed.
These elements together paint a picture of modern web development. This is one in which developers are trying to handle more complexity and sophistication while improving their productivity and efficiency.
Want to get started with Web Components? You can! Read Getting Started with Web Components.
One of the reasons that React managed to usurp Angular is the fact that it does many of the things that Google wanted Angular to do.
Perhaps the most significant difference between React and Angular is that React tackles some of the scalability issues presented by Angular’s two-way data binding (which was, for a while, incredibly exciting and innovative) with unidirectional flow.
There’s a lot of discussion around this, but by moving towards a singular model of data flow, applications can handle data on a much larger scale without running into problems.
Elsewhere, concepts like the virtual DOM (which is distinct from a shadow DOM, more on that here) help to improve encapsulation for developers. Indeed, flexibility is one of the biggest draws of React. To use Angular you need to know TypeScript, for example. And although you can use TypeScript when working with React, it isn’t essential. You have options.
Explore Packt’s React.js eBooks and videos.
Redux, Flux, and how we think about application state
The growth of React has got web developers thinking more and more about application state. While this isn’t something that’s new, as applications have become more interactive and complex it has become more important for developers to take the issue of ‘statefulness’ seriously.
Consequently, libraries such as Flux and Redux have emerged on the scene which act as objects in which all the values that comprise an application’s state can be stored. This article on egghead.io explains why state is important in a clear and concise way:
“For me, the key to understanding state management was when I realised that there is always state… users perform actions, and things change in response to those actions.
State management makes the state of your app tangible in the form of a data structure that you can read from and write to. It makes your ‘invisible’ state clearly visible for you to work with.”
Find Redux eBooks and videos from Packt. Or, check out a wide range of Flux titles.
APIs and microservices
One software trend that we haven’t mentioned yet but nevertheless remains important when thinking about modern web development is the rise of APIs and microservices. For web developers, the trend is reinforcing the importance of encapsulation and modularity that things like Web Components and React are designed to help with.
Insofar as microservices are simplifying the development process but adding architectural complexity, it’s not hard to see that web developers are having to think in a more holistic manner about how their applications interact with a variety of services and data sources.
Indeed, you could even say that this trend is only extending the growth of the full-stack developer as a job role. If development is today more about pulling together multiple different services and components, rather than different roles building different parts of a monolithic app, it makes sense that the demand for full stack developers is growing.
But there’s another, more specific, way in which the microservices trend is influencing modern web development: micro frontends.
Micro frontends take the concept of microservices and apply them to the frontend. Rather than just building an application in which the front end is powered by microservices (in a way that’s common today), you also treat individual constituent parts of the frontend as a microservice. In turn, you build teams around each of these parts. So, perhaps one works on search, another on check out, another on user accounts.
This is more of an organizational shift than a technological one. But it again feeds into the idea that modern web development is something modular, broken up and – usually – full-stack.
Conclusion: modern web development is both a set of tools and a way of thinking
The web development toolset has been evolving for more than a decade. Mobile was the catalyst for significant change, and has helped get us to a world that is modular, lightweight, and highly flexible. Heavyweight frameworks like AngularJS paved the way, but it appears an alternative has found real purchase with the wider development community.
Of course, it won’t always be this way. And although React has dominated developer mindshare for a good three years or so (quite a while in the engineering world), something will certainly replace it at some point. But however the tool chain evolves, the basic idea that we build better applications and websites when we break things apart will likely stick.
Complexity won’t decrease. Even if writing code gets easier, understanding how component parts of an application fit together – from front end elements to API integration – will become crucial. Even if it starts to bend your mind, and pose new problems you hadn’t even thought of, it’s clear that things are going to remain interesting as far as web development in the future is concerned.