JBoss Portals and AJAX – Part 1

7 min read

Rich user interfaces and AJAX

Rich user interfaces can be achieved by using a combination of dynamic HTML elements such as HTML and JavaScript. However, the scope of such an interface is limited to client-side behavior and has minimal functional implications due to the lack of server-side interactions. The power of AJAX is in its capability to provide even richer interface by supplementing its dynamic user interface with powerful functionality through seamless server-side invocation power. AJAX allows individual user interface components to communicate with the server and exchange data without the need for refreshing the whole screen. This is achieved using a process called Web Remoting. Web remoting, or the process of communicating between a browser and a server, can be performed in multiple ways. The popular approaches that are supported by today’s browsers are IFrames and XMLHttpRequest. Dynamic HTML can be complemented with either of these methods to generate AJAX functionality.

Asynchronous JavaScript and XML or AJAX

Asynchronous communication between the client and the server forms the backbone of AJAX. Although an asynchronous request-response method can provide significant value in the development of rich functionality by itself, the results are lot more pronounced when used in conjunction with other functional standards such as CSS, DOM, JavaScript, and so on. The predominant popularity of AJAX stems from such usage.

Client-server communication can be achieved either by using IFrames, or by using the supported JavaScript function called XMLHttpRequest(). Due to certain limitations of IFrames, XMLHttpRequest has gained a lot more acceptance. While IFrame can also be an effective option for implementing AJAX-based solutions, in this article, we will focus largely on an XMLHttpRequest-based implementation. The primary advantage of using AJAX-based interfaces is that the update of content occurs without page refreshes. A typical AJAX implementation using XMLHttpRequest happens as described in the following steps:

  1. An action on the client side, whether this is a mouse click or a timed refresh, triggers a client event
  2. An XMLHttpRequest object is created and configured
  3. The XMLHttpRequest object makes a call
  4. The request is processed by a server-side component
  5. The component returns an XML (or an equivalent) document containing the result
  6. The XMLHttpRequest object calls the callback() function and processes the result
  7. The HTML DOM is updated with any resulting values

The following simplified image illustrates the high-level steps involved in an AJAX request flow. The portal client page gets served to the client browser, where the execution of JavaScript functions takes place.

JBoss Portals and AJAX - Part 1

The following example illustrates the initialization of the request object and its basic use:

if (window.XMLHttpRequest) // Object of the current window {
// for non-IE browsers
request = new XMLHttpRequest();
else if (window.ActiveXObject){
// For IE
request = new ActiveXObject("Microsoft.XMLHTTP");
request.onreadystatechange = function()
// do something to process response
if (request.readyState == 4){
// everything received, OK. Do something now..
} else {
// wait for the response to come to ready state

In subsequent sections, we will modify our sample portal application by adding AJAX functionality to one of the portlets.

AJAX in JBoss portal

AJAX has gained tremendous popularity in the traditional web application development world due to the richness and agility that it brings to user interfaces. Portals, such as JBoss portal, can also gain significantly from AJAX, in terms of implementation of both behavior and functionality.

Refreshing the page content tends to be a time-consuming and resource-intensive process. Every request that a user makes to the server, either by clicking on submissions or links, results in the portal calling doView() and a series of methods for each portlet on the page, one at a time, before aggregating the results and sending the response back to the browser. Using AJAX allows for simultaneous submissions of request in their own independent threads of execution, resulting in an asynchronous and parallel execution. The portal page refresh overhead is now only as long as the time consumed by the slowest portlet.

The response times observed by the user improve dramatically, while at the same time allowing more functionality on pages. Architecturally, vertical independent stacks of execution facilitate cleaner and more modular designs and implementations.

AJAX can be implemented in JBoss portal in the following two ways:

  1. Using in-built support for asynchronous portal behavior by using configurations
  2. Writing custom behavior in portlets and page content by using AJAX libraries

The in-built support for asynchronous behavior comprises of support for both markup and content. The markup support is in layouts and renderers, while the content is supported through configurable drag-drop and partial page refresh behavior. Almost all of the AJAX behavior supported by JBoss portal relates to asynchronous communication between the client and the portal servers. The only exception is the drag-drop behavior, which is largely view functionality.

As far as the custom development within a portlet is concerned, the options are innumerable. A portlet can be developed using many advanced frameworks that are available as either commercial or open source products. For example, user interface features such as drag-and-drops, grids, accordion selects, pull-down menus, content refresh, and so on can be implemented by using third-party libraries including Scriptaculous, JQuery, and DOJO, which have gained a strong following among developers, even on traditional applications and non-portal platforms.

In the next few sections, we will walk through an example of AJAX-enabled portlets using one of these libraries, developed on the JBoss portal platform. However, before we go into the implementation, let’s step back and understand the limitations that the current portlet specification– JSR-286–addresses, facilitating easy development of AJAX portlets.

JSR-168 AJAX limitations

Before we look at the features and options provided by the new specification, let’s look at how traditional JSR-168 portlets functioned. As shown in the following figure, the “Action” request invoked the processAction method on the server, which implemented controller logic to route it to the correct view. The “Render” request then invokes the render method to serve the content page to the browser.

JBoss Portals and AJAX - Part 1

However, when the portlet uses AJAX and needs to makes an asynchronous call, it has to use ActionURL. This in turn follows the standard processing when processAction processes the request and the render method creates the user interface. However, now when the user interface is sent back, the portal injects some other markup and recreates the entire portal page. Hence, instead of refreshing a snippet of user interface, we end up refreshing the whole page.

The issues with JSR-168 and AJAX can be broadly summarized as follows:

  • ActionURL and RenderURL point to a portal, and not to a portlet. When we point to a portal, the result is a complete portal page, even if the portlet generates only a snippet.
  • As per the specification, the user interface rendered by the portlet is supposed to be aggregated with some other markup and served back to the browser. When more than only the necessary data and markup is sent back, the JavaScript code on the client side that makes the asynchronous call cannot process the request.
  • Asynchronous calls are made through XMLHttpRequest, which is designed to consume and process the complete response from the portlet. With the portal processing the request in between, XMLHttpRequest cannot consume the original response for processing.

This defeats the purpose and value of using asynchronous calls to the server, and we end up with traditional full page refreshes.

There were obviously a few workarounds to this. The most common practice was to serve the request from outside of the portal container into the web container. The idea is that the AJAX call can still be made to ActionURL, but the render function copies or shares its context with a traditional Java servlet in the web container of the application server. The AJAX call can now make a direct request to the servlet and get an asynchronous response from the servlet with no interference from the portal.

JBoss Portals and AJAX - Part 1

There was a need for a better solution, and one that was incorporated as part of the specification. JSR-286, the latest portlet specification, addresses these problems.


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