GQL (Graph Query Language) joins SQL as a Global Standards Project and will be the international standard declarative query language for graphs

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On Tuesday, the team at Neo4j, the graph database management system announced that the international committees behind the development of the SQL standard have voted to initiate GQL (Graph Query Language) as the new database query language. GQL is now going to be the international standard declarative query language for property graphs and it is also a Global Standards Project. GQL is developed and maintained by the same international group that maintains the SQL standard.

How did the proposal for GQL pass?

Last year in May, the initiative for GQL was first time processed in the GQL Manifesto. This year in June, the national standards bodies across the world from the ISO/IEC’s Joint Technical Committee 1 (responsible for IT standards) started voting on the GQL project proposal. 

The ballot closed earlier this week and the proposal was passed wherein ten countries including Germany, Korea, United States, UK, and China voted in favor. And seven countries agreed to put forward their experts to work on this project. Japan was the only country to vote against in the ballot because according to Japan, existing languages already do the job, and SQL/Property Graph Query extensions along with the rest of the SQL standard can do the same job.

According to the Neo4j team, the GQL project will initiate development of next-generation technology standards for accessing data. Its charter mandates building on core foundations that are established by SQL and ongoing collaboration in order to ensure SQL and GQL interoperability and compatibility. GQL would reflect rapid growth in the graph database market by increasing adoption of the Cypher language


Stefan Plantikow, GQL project lead and editor of the planned GQL specification, said, “I believe now is the perfect time for the industry to come together and define the next generation graph query language standard.” 

Plantikow further added, “It’s great to receive formal recognition of the need for a standard language. Building upon a decade of experience with property graph querying, GQL will support native graph data types and structures, its own graph schema, a pattern-based approach to data querying, insertion and manipulation, and the ability to create new graphs, and graph views, as well as generate tabular and nested data. Our intent is to respect, evolve, and integrate key concepts from several existing languages including graph extensions to SQL.”

Keith Hare, who has served as the chair of the international SQL standards committee for database languages since 2005, charted the progress toward GQL, said, “We have reached a balance of initiating GQL, the database query language of the future whilst preserving the value and ubiquity of SQL.” Hare further added, “Our committee has been heartened to see strong international community participation to usher in the GQL project.  Such support is the mark of an emerging de jure and de facto standard .”

The need for a graph-specific query language

Researchers and vendors needed a graph-specific query language because of the following limitations:

  • SQL/PGQ language is restricted to read-only queries
  • SQL/PGQ cannot project new graphs
  • The SQL/PGQ language can only access those graphs that are based on taking a graph view over SQL tables.

Researchers and vendors needed a language like Cypher that would cover insertion and maintenance of data and not just data querying. But SQL wasn’t the apt model for a graph-centric language that takes graphs as query inputs and outputs a graph as a result. But GQL, on the other hand, builds in openCypher, a project that brings Cypher to Apache Spark and gives users a composable graph query language.

SQL and GQL can work together

According to most of the companies and national standards bodies that are supporting the GQL initiative, GQL and SQL are not competitors. Instead, these languages can complement each other via interoperation and shared foundations.

Alastair Green, Query Languages Standards & Research Lead at Neo4j writes, “A SQL/PGQ query is in fact a SQL sub-query wrapped around a chunk of proto-GQL.”

SQL is a language that is built around tables whereas GQL is built around graphs. Users can use GQL to find and project a graph from a graph. 

Green further writes, “I think that the SQL standards community has made the right decision here: allow SQL, a language built around tables, to quote GQL when the SQL user wants to find and project a table from a graph, but use GQL when the user wants to find and project a graph from a graph. Which means that we can produce and catalog graphs which are not just views over tables, but discrete complex data objects.”

It is still not clear when will the first implementation version of GQL will be out. The official page reads,  “The work of the GQL project starts in earnest at the next meeting of the SQL/GQL standards committee, ISO/IEC JTC 1 SC 32/WG3, in Arusha, Tanzania, later this month. It is impossible at this stage to say when the first implementable version of GQL will become available, but it is highly likely that some reasonably complete draft will have been created by the second half of 2020.”

Developer community welcomes the new addition

Users are excited to see how GQL will incorporate Cypher, a user commented on HackerNews, “It’s been years since I’ve worked with the product and while I don’t miss Neo4j, I do miss the query language. It’s a little unclear to me how GQL will incorporate Cypher but I hope the initiative is successful if for no other reason than a selfish one: I’d love Cypher to be around if I ever wind up using a GraphDB again.”

Few others mistook GQL to be Facebook’s GraphQL and are sceptical about the name. A comment on HackerNews reads, “Also, the name is of course justified, but it will be a mess to search for due to (Facebook) GraphQL.”

A user commented, “I read the entire article and came away mistakenly thinking this was the same thing as GraphQL.” Another user commented, “That’s quiet an unfortunate name clash with the existing GraphQL language in a similar domain.”

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