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We are going to focus on the design patterns from the Scala point of view. All different design patterns can be grouped into the following types:
These three groups contain the famous Gang of Four design patterns. In the next few subsections, we will explain the main characteristics of the listed groups and briefly present the actual design patterns that fall under them.
Creational design patterns
The creational design patterns deal with object creation mechanisms. Their purpose is to create objects in a way that is suitable to the current situation, which could lead to unnecessary complexity and the need for extra knowledge if they were not there. The main ideas behind the creational design patterns are as follows:
- Knowledge encapsulation about the concrete classes
- Hiding details about the actual creation and how objects are combined
We will be focusing on the following creational design patterns in this article:
- The abstract factory design pattern
- The factory method design pattern
- The lazy initialization design pattern
- The singleton design pattern
- The object pool design pattern
- The builder design pattern
- The prototype design pattern
The following few sections give a brief definition of what these patterns are.
The abstract factory design pattern
This is used to encapsulate a group of individual factories that have a common theme. When used, the developer creates a specific implementation of the abstract factory and uses its methods in the same way as in the factory design pattern to create objects. It can be thought of as another layer of abstraction that helps to instantiate classes.
The factory method design pattern
This design pattern deals with the creation of objects without explicitly specifying the actual class that the instance will have—it could be something that is decided at runtime based on many factors. Some of these factors can include operating systems, different data types, or input parameters. It gives developers the peace of mind of just calling a method rather than invoking a concrete constructor.
The lazy initialization design pattern
This design pattern is an approach to delay the creation of an object or the evaluation of a value until the first time it is needed. It is much more simplified in Scala than it is in an object-oriented language such as Java.
The singleton design pattern
This design pattern restricts the creation of a specific class to just one object. If more than one class in the application tries to use such an instance, then this same instance is returned for everyone. This is another design pattern that can be easily achieved with the use of basic Scala features.
The object pool design pattern
This design pattern uses a pool of objects that are already instantiated and ready for use. Whenever someone requires an object from the pool, it is returned, and after the user is finished with it, it puts it back into the pool manually or automatically. A common use for pools are database connections, which generally are expensive to create; hence, they are created once and then served to the application on request.
The builder design pattern
The builder design pattern is extremely useful for objects with many possible constructor parameters that would otherwise require developers to create many overrides for the different scenarios an object could be created in. This is different to the factory design pattern, which aims to enable polymorphism. Many of the modern libraries today employ this design pattern. As we will see later, Scala can achieve this pattern really easily.
The prototype design pattern
This design pattern allows object creation using a clone() method from an already created instance. It can be used in cases when a specific resource is expensive to create or when the abstract factory pattern is not desired.
Structural design patterns
Structural design patterns exist in order to help establish the relationships between different entities in order to form larger structures. They define how each component should be structured so that it has very flexible interconnecting modules that can work together in a larger system. The main features of structural design patterns include the following:
- The use of the composition to combine the implementations of multiple objects
- Help build a large system made of various components by maintaining a high level of flexibility
In this article, we will focus on the following structural design patterns:
- The adapter design pattern
- The decorator design pattern
- The bridge design pattern
- The composite design pattern
- The facade design pattern
- The flyweight design pattern
- The proxy design pattern
The next subsections will put some light on what these patterns are about.
The adapter design pattern
The adapter design pattern allows the interface of an existing class to be used from another interface. Imagine that there is a client who expects your class to expose a doWork() method. You might have the implementation ready in another class, but the method is called differently and is incompatible. It might require extra parameters too.
This could also be a library that the developer doesn’t have access to for modifications. This is where the adapter can help by wrapping the functionality and exposing the required methods. The adapter is useful for integrating the existing components. In Scala, the adapter design pattern can be easily achieved using implicit classes.
The decorator design pattern
Decorators are a flexible alternative to sub classing. They allow developers to extend the functionality of an object without affecting other instances of the same class. This is achieved by wrapping an object of the extended class into one that extends the same class and overrides the methods whose functionality is supposed to be changed. Decorators in Scala can be built much more easily using another design pattern called stackable traits.
The bridge design pattern
The purpose of the bridge design pattern is to decouple an abstraction from its implementation so that the two can vary independently. It is useful when the class and its functionality vary a lot. The bridge reminds us of the adapter pattern, but the difference is that the adapter pattern is used when something is already there and you cannot change it, while the bridge design pattern is used when things are being built. It helps us to avoid ending up with multiple concrete classes that will be exposed to the client.
You will get a clearer understanding when we delve deeper into the topic, but for now, let’s imagine that we want to have a FileReader class that supports multiple different platforms. The bridge will help us end up with FileReader, which will use a different implementation, depending on the platform. In Scala, we can use self-types in order to implement a bridge design pattern.
The composite design pattern
The composite is a partitioning design pattern that represents a group of objects that are to be treated as only one object. It allows developers to treat individual objects and compositions uniformly and to build complex hierarchies without complicating the source code. An example of composite could be a tree structure where a node can contain other nodes, and so on.
The facade design pattern
The purpose of the facade design pattern is to hide the complexity of a system and its implementation details by providing the client with a simpler interface to use. This also helps to make the code more readable and to reduce the dependencies of the outside code. It works as a wrapper around the system that is being simplified and, of course, it can be used in conjunction with some of the other design patterns mentioned previously.
The flyweight design pattern
The flyweight design pattern provides an object that is used to minimize memory usage by sharing it throughout the application. This object should contain as much data as possible. A common example given is a word processor, where each character’s graphical representation is shared with the other same characters. The local information then is only the position of the character, which is stored internally.
The proxy design pattern
The proxy design pattern allows developers to provide an interface to other objects by wrapping them. They can also provide additional functionality, for example, security or thread-safety. Proxies can be used together with the flyweight pattern, where the references to shared objects are wrapped inside proxy objects.
Behavioral design patterns
Behavioral design patterns increase communication flexibility between objects based on the specific ways they interact with each other. Here, creational patterns mostly describe a moment in time during creation, structural patterns describe a more or less static structure, and behavioral patterns describe a process or flow. They simplify this flow and make it more understandable.
The main features of behavioral design patterns are as follows:
- What is being described is a process or flow
- The flows are simplified and made understandable
- They accomplish tasks that would be difficult or impossible to achieve with objects
In this article, we will focus our attention on the following behavioral design patterns:
- The value object design pattern
- The null object design pattern
- The strategy design pattern
- The command design pattern
- The chain of responsibility design pattern
- The interpreter design pattern
- The iterator design pattern
- The mediator design pattern
- The memento design pattern
- The observer design pattern
- The state design pattern
- The template method design pattern
- The visitor design pattern
The following subsections will give brief definitions of the aforementioned behavioral design patterns.
The value object design pattern
Value objects are immutable and their equality is based not on their identity, but on their fields being equal. They can be used as data transfer objects, and they can represent dates, colors, money amounts, numbers, and more. Their immutability makes them really useful in multithreaded programming. The Scala programming language promotes immutability, and value objects are something that naturally occur there.
The null object design pattern
Null objects represent the absence of a value and they define a neutral behavior. This approach removes the need to check for null references and makes the code much more concise. Scala adds the concept of optional values, which can replace this pattern completely.
The strategy design pattern
The strategy design pattern allows algorithms to be selected at runtime. It defines a family of interchangeable encapsulated algorithms and exposes a common interface to the client. Which algorithm is chosen could depend on various factors that are determined while the application runs. In Scala, we can simply pass a function as a parameter to a method, and depending on the function, a different action will be performed.
The command design pattern
This design pattern represents an object that is used to store information about an action that needs to be triggered at a later time. The information includes the following:
- The method name
- The owner of the method
- Parameter values
The client then decides which commands need to be executed and when by the invoker. This design pattern can easily be implemented in Scala using the by-name parameters feature of the language.
The chain of responsibility design pattern
The chain of responsibility is a design pattern where the sender of a request is decoupled from its receiver. This way, it makes it possible for multiple objects to handle the request and to keep logic nicely separated. The receivers form a chain where they pass the request and, if possible, they process it, and if not, they pass it to the next receiver. There are variations where a handler might dispatch the request to multiple other handlers at the same time. This somehow reminds us of function composition, which in Scala can be achieved using the stackable traits design pattern.
The interpreter design pattern
The interpreter design pattern is based on the ability to characterize a well-known domain with a language with a strict grammar. It defines classes for each grammar rule in order to interpret sentences in the given language. These classes are likely to represent hierarchies as grammar is usually hierarchical as well. Interpreters can be used in different parsers, for example, SQL or other languages.
The iterator design pattern
The iterator design pattern is when an iterator is used to traverse a container and access its elements. It helps to decouple containers from the algorithms performed on them. What an iterator should provide is sequential access to the elements of an aggregate object without exposing the internal representation of the iterated collection.
The mediator design pattern
This pattern encapsulates the communication between different classes in an application. Instead of interacting directly with each other, objects communicate through the mediator, which reduces the dependencies between them, lowers the coupling, and makes the overall application easier to read and maintain.
The memento design pattern
This pattern provides the ability to roll back an object to its previous state. It is implemented with three objects—originator, caretaker, and memento. The originator is the object with the internal state; the caretaker will modify the originator, and a memento is an object that contains the state that the originator returns. The originator knows how to handle a memento in order to restore its previous state.
The observer design pattern
This design pattern allows the creation of publish/subscribe systems. There is a special object called subject that automatically notifies all the observers when there are any changes in the state. This design pattern is popular in various GUI toolkits and generally where event handling is needed. It is also related to reactive programming, which is enabled by libraries such as Akka. We will see an example of this towards the end of this book.
The state design pattern
This design pattern is similar to the strategy design pattern, and it uses a state object to encapsulate different behavior for the same object. It improves the code’s readability and maintainability by avoiding the use of large conditional statements.
The template method design pattern
This design pattern defines the skeleton of an algorithm in a method and then passes some of the actual steps to the subclasses. It allows developers to alter some of the steps of an algorithm without having to modify its structure. An example of this could be a method in an abstract class that calls other abstract methods, which will be defined in the children.
The visitor design pattern
The visitor design pattern represents an operation to be performed on the elements of an object structure. It allows developers to define a new operation without changing the original classes. Scala can minimize the verbosity of this pattern compared to the pure object-oriented way of implementing it by passing functions to methods.
Choosing a design pattern
As we already saw, there are a huge number of design patterns. In many cases, they are suitable to be used in combinations as well. Unfortunately, there is no definite answer regarding how to choose the concept of designing our code. There are many factors that could affect the final decision, and you should ask yourselves the following questions:
- Is this piece of code going to be fairly static or will it change in the future?
- Do we have to dynamically decide what algorithms to use?
- Is our code going to be used by others?
- Do we have an agreed interface?
- What libraries are we planning to use, if any?
- Are there any special performance requirements or limitations?
This is by no means an exhaustive list of questions. There is a huge amount of factors that could dictate our decision in how we build our systems. It is, however, really important to have a clear specification, and if something seems missing, it should always be checked first.
By now, we have a fair idea about what a design pattern is and how it can affect the way we write our code. We’ve iterated through the most famous Gang of Four design patterns out there, and we have outlined the main differences between them.
To know more on how to incorporate functional patterns effectively in real-life applications, read our book Scala Design Patterns – Second Edition.