Every once in a while a technology comes along that changes the way work is done in a data center. It happened with virtualization and we are seeing it with various cloud computing technologies and concepts. But most recently, the rise in popularity of container technology has given us reason to rethink interdependencies within software stacks and how we run applications in our infrastructures. Despite all of the enthusiasm around the potential of containers, they are still just another thing in the data center that needs to be centrally controlled and managed…often at massive scale. This article will provide an introduction to how SaltStack can be used to manage all of this, including container technology, at web scale.
SaltStack Systems Management Software
The SaltStack systems management software is built for remote execution, orchestration, and configuration management and is known for being fast, scalable, and flexible. Salt is easy to set up and can easily communicate asynchronously with tens of thousands of servers in a matter of seconds. Salt was originally built as a remote execution engine relying on a secure, bi-directional communication system utilizing a Salt Master daemon used to control Salt Minion daemons, where the minions receive commands from the remote master.
Salt’s configuration management capabilities are called the state system, or Salt States, and are built on SLS formulas. SLS files are data structures based on dictionaries, lists, strings, and numbers that are used to enforce the state that a system should be in, also known as configuration management. SLS files are easy to write, simple to implement, and are typically written in YAML.
State file execution occurs on the Salt Minion. Therefore, once any states files that the infrastructure requires have been written, it is possible to enforce state on tens of thousands of hosts simultaneously. Additionally, each minion returns its status to the Salt Master.
Docker is an agile runtime and packaging platform specializing in enabling applications to be quickly built, shipped, and run in any environment. Docker containers allow developers to easily compartmentalize their applications so that all of the program’s needs are installed and configured in a single container. This container can then be dropped into clouds, data centers, laptops, virtual machines (VMs), or infrastructures where the app can execute, unaltered, without any cross-environment issues.
Building Docker containers is fast, simple, and inexpensive. Developers can create a container, change it, break it, fix it, throw it away, or save it much like a VM. However, Docker containers are much more nimble, as the containers only possess the application and its dependencies. VMs, along with the application and its dependencies, also install a guest operating system, which requires much more overhead than may be necessary.
While being able to slice deployments into confined components is a good idea for application portability and resource allocation, it also means there are many more pieces that need to be managed. As the number of containers scales, without proper management, inefficiencies abound. This scenario, known as container sprawl, is where SaltStack can help and the combination of SaltStack and Docker quickly proves its value.
SaltStack + Docker
When we combine SaltStack’s powerful configuration management armory with Docker’s portable and compact containerization tools, we get the best of both worlds. SaltStack has added support for users to manage Docker containers on any infrastructure. The following demonstration illustrates how SaltStack can be used to manage Docker containers using Salt States.
We are going to use a Salt Master to control a minimum of two Salt Minions. On one minion we will install HAProxy. On the other minion, we will install Docker and then spin up two containers on that minion. Each container hosts a PHP app with Apache that displays information about each container’s IP address and exposed port. The HAProxy minion will automatically update to pull the IP address and port number from each of the Docker containers housed on the Docker minion. You can certainly set up more minions for this experiment, where additional minions would be additional Docker container minions, to see an implementation of containers at scale, but it is not necessary to see what is possible.
First, we have a few installation steps to take care of. SaltStack’s installation documentation provides a thorough overview of how to get Salt up and running, depending on your operating system. Follow the instructions on Salt’s Installation Guide to install and configure your Salt Master and two Salt Minions. Go through the process of accepting the minion keys on the Salt Master and, to make sure the minions are connected, run:
salt ‘*’ test.ping
Note: Much of the Docker functionality used in this demonstration is brand new. You must install the latest supported version of Salt, which is 2014.1.6. For reference, I have my master and minions all running on Ubuntu 14.04. My Docker minion is named “docker1” and my HAProxy minion is named “haproxy”.
Now that you have a Salt Master and two Salt Minions configured and communicating with each other, it’s time to get to work. Dave Boucha, a Senior Engineer at SaltStack, has already set up the necessary configuration files for both our haproxy and docker1 minions and we will be using those to get started.
First, clone the Docker files in Dave’s GitHub repository, dock-apache, and copy the dock_apache and docker> directories into the /srv/salt directory on your Salt Master (you may need to create the /srv/salt directory):
cp -r path/to/download/dock_apache /srv/salt cp -r path/to/download/docker /srv/salt
The init.sls file inside the docker directory is a Salt State that installs Docker and all of its dependencies on your minion. The docker.pgp file is a public key that is used during the Docker installation. To fire off all of these events, run the following command:
salt ‘docker1’ state.sls docker
Once Docker has successfully installed on your minion, we need to set up our two Docker containers. The init.sls file in the dock_apache directory is a Salt State that specifies the image to pull from Docker’s public container repository, installs the two containers, and assigns the ports that each container should expose: 8000 for the first container and 8080 for the second container. Now, let’s run the state:
salt ‘docker1’ state.sls dock_apache
Let’s check and see if it worked. Get the IP address of the minion by running:
salt ‘docker1’ network.ip_addrs
Copy and paste the IP address into a browser and add one of the ports to the end. Try them both (IP:8000 and IP:8080) to see each container up and running!
At this point, you should have two Docker containers installed on your “docker1” minion (or any other docker minions you may have created). Now we need to set up the “haproxy” minion. Download the files from Dave’s GitHub repository, haproxy-docker, and place them all in your Salt Master’s /srv/salt/haproxy directory:
cp -r path/to/download/haproxy /srv/salt
First, we need to retrieve the data about our Docker containers from the Docker minion(s), such as the container IP address and port numbers, by running the haproxy.config
salt ‘haproxy’ state.sls haproxy.config
By running haproxy.config, we are setting up a new configuration with the Docker minion data. The configuration file also runs the haproxy state (init.sls. The init.sls file contains a haproxy state that ensures that HAProxy is installed on the minion, sets up the configuration for HAProxy, and then runs HAProxy.
You should now be able to look at the HAProxy statistics by entering the haproxy minion’s IP address in your browser with /haproxy?stats on the end of the URL. When the authentication pop-up appears, the username and password are both saltstack.
While this is a simple example of running HAProxy to balance the load of only two Docker containers, it demonstrates how Salt can be used to manage tens of thousands of containers as your infrastructure scales. To see this same demonstration with a haproxy minion in action with 99 Docker minions, each with two Docker containers installed, check out SaltStack’s Salt Air 20 tutorial by Dave Boucha on YouTube.
About the author
Nicole Thomas is a QA Engineer at SaltStack, Inc. Before coming to SaltStack, she wore many hats from web and Android developer to contributing editor to working in Environmental Education. Nicole recently graduated Summa Cum Laude from Westminster College with a degree in Computer Science. Nicole also has a degree in Environmental Studies from the University of Utah.