Django debug settings
Django has a number of settings that control the collection and presentation of debug information. The primary one is named DEBUG; it broadly controls whether the server operates in development (if DEBUG is True) or production mode.
In development mode, the end-user is expected to be a site developer. Thus, if an error arises during processing of a request, it is useful to include specific technical information about the error in the response sent to the web browser. This is not useful in production mode, when the user is expected to be simply a general site user.
This section describes three Django settings that are useful for debugging during development. Additional settings are used during production to control what errors should be reported, and where error reports should be sent. These additional settings will be discussed in the section on handling problems in production.
The DEBUG and TEMPLATE_DEBUG settings
DEBUG is the main debug setting. One of the most obvious effects of setting this to True is that Django will generate fancy error page responses in the case of serious code problems, such as exceptions raised during processing of a request. If TEMPLATE_DEBUG is also True, and the exception raised is related to a template error, then the fancy error page will also include information about where in the template the error occurred.
The default value for both of these settings is False, but the settings.py file created by manage.py startproject turns both of them on by including these lines at the top of the file:
DEBUG = True
TEMPLATE_DEBUG = DEBUG
Note that setting TEMPLATE_DEBUG to True when DEBUG is False isn’t useful. The additional information collected with TEMPLATE_DEBUG turned on will never be displayed if the fancy error pages, controlled by the DEBUG setting, are not displayed. Similarly, setting TEMPLATE_DEBUG to False when DEBUG is True isn’t very useful. In this case, for template errors, the fancy debug page will be lacking helpful information. Thus, it makes sense to keep these settings tied to each other, as previously shown.
Details on the fancy error pages and when they are generated will be covered in the next section. Besides generating these special pages, turning DEBUG on has several other effects. Specifically, when DEBUG is on:
- A record is kept of all queries sent to the database. Details of what is recorded and how to access it will be covered in a subsequent section.
- For the MySQL database backend, warnings issued by the database will be turned into Python Exceptions. These MySQL warnings may indicate a serious problem, but a warning (which only results in a message printed to stderr) may pass unnoticed. Since most development is done with DEBUG turned on, raising exceptions for MySQL warnings then ensures that the developer is aware of the possible issue.
- The admin application performs extensive validation of the configuration of all registered models and raises an ImproperlyConfigured exception on the first attempt to access any admin page if an error is found in the configuration. This extensive validation is fairly expensive and not something you’d generally want done during production server start-up, when the admin configuration likely has not changed since the last start-up. When running with DEBUG on, though, it is possible that the admin configuration has changed, and thus it is useful and worth the cost to do the explicit validation and provide a specific error message about what is wrong if a problem is detected.
- Finally, there are several places in Django code where an error will occur while DEBUG is on, and the generated response will contain specific information about the cause of the error, whereas when DEBUG is off the generated response will be a generic error page.
The TEMPLATE_STRING_IF_INVALID setting
A third setting that can be useful for debugging during development is TEMPLATE_STRING_IF_INVALID. The default value for this setting is the empty string. This setting is used to control what gets inserted into a template in place of a reference to an invalid (for example, non-existent in the template context) variable. The default value of an empty string results in nothing visible taking the place of such invalid references, which can make them hard to notice. Setting TEMPLATE_STRING_IF_INVALID to some value can make tracking down such invalid references easier.
However, some code that ships with Django (the admin application, in particular), relies on the default behavior of invalid references being replaced with an empty string. Running code like this with a non-empty TEMPLATE_STRING_IF_INVALID setting can produce unexpected results, so this setting is only useful when you are specifically trying to track down something like a misspelled template variable in code that always ensures that variables, even empty ones, are set in the template context.
Debug error pages
With DEBUG on, Django generates fancy debug error pages in two circumstances:
- When a django.http.Http404 exception is raised
- When any other exception is raised and not handled by the regular view processing code
In the latter case, the debug page contains a tremendous amount of information about the error, the request that caused it, and the environment at the time it occurred. The debug pages for Http404 exceptions are considerably simpler.
To see examples of the Http404 debug pages, consider the survey_detail view
def survey_detail(request, pk):
survey = get_object_or_404(Survey, pk=pk)
today = datetime.date.today()
if survey.closes < today:
return display_completed_survey(request, survey)
elif survey.opens > today:
return display_active_survey(request, survey)
There are two cases where this view may raise an Http404 exception: when the requested survey is not found in the database, and when it is found but has not yet opened. Thus, we can see the debug 404 page by attempting to access the survey detail for a survey that does not exist, say survey number 24. The result will be as follows:
Notice there is a message in the middle of the page that describes the cause of the page not found response: No Survey matches the given query. This message was generated automatically by the get_object_or_404 function. By contrast, the bare raise Http404 in the case where the survey is found but not yet open does not look like it will have any descriptive message. To confirm this, add a survey that has an opens date in the future, and try to access its detail page. The result will be something like the following:
That is not a very helpful debug page, since it lacks any information about what was being searched for and why it could not be displayed. To make this page more useful, include a message when raising the Http404 exception. For example:
raise Http404("%s does not open until %s; it is only %s" %
(survey.title, survey.opens, today))
Then an attempt to access this page will be a little more helpful:
Note that the error message supplied with the Http404 exception is only displayed on the debug 404 page; it would not appear on a standard 404 page. So you can make such messages as descriptive as you like and not worry that they will leak private or sensitive information to general users.
Another thing to note is that a debug 404 page is only generated when an Http404 exception is raised. If you manually construct an HttpResponse with a 404 status code, it will be returned, not the debug 404 page. Consider this code:
return HttpResponse("%s does not open until %s; it is only %s" %
(survey.title, survey.opens, today), status=404)
If that code were used in place of the raise Http404 variant, then the browser will simply display the passed message:
Without the prominent Page not found message and distinctive error page formatting, this page isn’t even obviously an error report. Note also that some browsers by default will replace the server-provided content with a supposedly “friendly” error page that tends to be even less informative. Thus, it is both easier and more useful to use the Http404 exception instead of manually building HttpResponse objects with status code 404.
A final example of the debug 404 page that is very useful is the one that is generated when URL resolution fails. For example, if we add an extra space before the survey number in the URL, the debug 404 page generated will be as follows:
The message on this page includes all of the information necessary to figure out why URL resolution failed. It includes the current URL, the name of the base URLConf used for resolution, and all patterns that were tried, in order, for matching.
If you do any significant amount of Django application programming, it’s highly likely that at some time this page will appear and you will be convinced that one of the listed patterns should match the given URL. You would be wrong. Do not waste energy trying to figure out how Django could be so broken. Rather, trust the error message, and focus your energies on figuring out why the pattern you think should match doesn’t in fact match. Look carefully at each element of the pattern and compare it to the actual element in the current URL: there will be something that doesn’t match.
In this case, you might think the third listed pattern should match the current URL. The first element in the pattern is the capture of the primary key value, and the actual URL value does contain a number that could be a primary key. However, the capture is done using the pattern d+. An attempt to match this against the actual URL characters—a space followed by 2—fails because d only matches numeric digits and the space character is not a numeric digit. There will always be something like this to explain why the URL resolution failed.
For now, we will leave the subject of debug pages and learn about accessing the history of database queries that is maintained when DEBUG is on.