Since the Advent of Rails (and Ruby by extension), in the period between 2005 and 2010, Rails went from a niche Web Application Framework to being the center of a robust web application platform. To do this it needed more than Ruby and a few complementary gems. Anyone who has ever tried to deploy a Rails application into a production environment knows that Rails doesn’t run in a vacuum. Rails still needs a web server in front of it to help manage requests like Apache or Nginx. Oops, you’ll need unicorn or Passenger too. Almost all of the Rails apps are backed by some sort of data persistence layer. Usually that is some sort of relational database. More and more it’s a NoSQL DB like MongoDB or depending on the application, you’re probably going to deploy a caching strategy at some point: Memcached, Redis, the list goes on. What about background jobs? You’ll need another server instance for that too, and not just one either. High availability systems need to be redundant. If you’re lucky enough to get a lot of traffic, you’ll need a way to scale all of this.
Chances are that you’re managing all of this traffic manually. Don’t feel bad, everyone starts out that way. But as you grow, how do you manage all of this without going insane? Most Rails developers start off with Capistrano, which is a great choice. Capistrano is a remote server automation tool. It’s used most often as a deployment tool for Rails. For the most part it’s a great solution for managing multiple servers that make up your Rails stack.
It’s only when your architecture reaches a certain size that I’d recommend choosing Chef over Capistrano. But really, there’s no reason to choose one over the other since they actually work pretty well together, and they are both similar regarding deployment. Where Chef excels, however, is when you need to provision multiple servers with different roles, and changing software stacks. This is what I’m going to focus on in this post. But let’s introduce Chef first.
What is Chef anyway?
Basically, Chef is a Ruby-based configuration management engine. It is a software configuration management tool, used for provisioning servers for certain roles within a platform stack, and deploying applications to those servers. It is used to automate server configuration and integration into your infrastructure. You define your infrastructure in configuration files written in Chef’s Ruby DSL and Chef takes care of setting up individual machines and linking them together.
You set up one of your server instances (virtual or otherwise) as the server and all your other instances are clients that communicate with the Chef “server” via REST over HTTPS. The server is an application that stores cookbooks for your nodes.
Recipes and cookbooks
Recipes are files that contain sets of instructions written in Chef’s Ruby DSL. These instructions perform some kind of procedure, usually installing software and configuring some service. These recipes are bound together along with configuration file templates, resources, and helper scripts as cookbooks. Cookbooks generally correspond to a specific server configuration. For instance, a Postgres cookbook might contain a recipe for Postgres Server, Postgres Client, maybe PostGIS, and some configuration files for how the DB instance should be provisioned.
For stacks that don’t necessarily need a full Chef server setup, but use cookbooks to set up Rails and DB servers, there’s Chef Solo. Chef Solo is a local standalone Chef application that can be used to remotely deploy servers and applications.
Wait, where is the code?
In Part 2 of this post I’m going to walk you through the setting up of a Rails application with Chef Solo, then I’ll expand to show a full Chef server configuration management engine. While Chef can be used for many different application stacks, I’m going to focus on Rails configuration and deployment, provisioning and deploying the entire stack.
See you next time!
About the Author
Rahmal Conda is a Software Development Professional and Ruby aficionado from Chicago. After 10 years working in web and application development, he moved out to the Bay Area, eager to join the startup scene. He had a taste of the startup life in Chicago working at a small personal finance company. After that he knew it was the life he had been looking for. So he moved his family out west. Since then he’s made a name for himself in the social space at some high profile Silicon Valley startups. Right now he’s the one of the Co-founders and Platform Architect of Boxes, a mobile marketplace for the world’s hidden treasures.