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In today’s tutorial, you will learn to design REST services. We will break down the key design considerations you need to make when building RESTful web APIs. In particular, we will focus on the core elements of the REST architecture style:

  • Resources and their identifiers
  • Interaction semantics for RESTful APIs (HTTP methods)
  • Representation of resources
  • Hypermedia controls

This article is an excerpt from a book written by Balachandar Bogunuva Mohanram, titled RESTful Java Web Services, Second Edition. This book will help you build robust, scalable and secure RESTful web services, making use of the JAX-RS and Jersey framework extensions.

Let’s start by discussing the guidelines for identifying resources in a problem domain.

Richardson Maturity Model—Leonardo Richardson has developed a model to help with assessing the compliance of a service to REST architecture style. The model defines four levels of maturity, starting from level-0 to level-3 as the highest maturity level. The maturity levels are decided considering the aforementioned principle elements of the REST architecture.

Identifying resources in the problem domain

The basic steps that yoneed to take while building a RESTful web API for a specific problem domain are:

  1. Identify all possible objects in the problem domain. This can be done by identifying all the key nouns in the problem domain. For example, if you are building an application to manage employees in a department, the obvious nouns are department and employee.
  2. The next step is to identify the objects that can be manipulated using CRUD operations. These objects can be classified as resources. Note that you should be careful while choosing resources. Based on the usage pattern, you can classify resources as top-level and nested resources (which are the children of a top-level resource). Also, there is no need to expose all resources for use by the client; expose only those resources that are required for implementing the business use case.

Transforming operations to HTTP methods

Once you have identified all resources, as the next step, you may want to map the operations defined on the resources to the appropriate HTTP methods.

The most commonly used HTTP methods (verbs) in RESTful web APIs are POST, GET, PUT, and DELETE. Note that there is no one-to-one mapping between the CRUD operations defined on the resources and the HTTP methods. Understanding of idempotent and safe operation concepts will help with using the correct HTTP method.

An operation is called idempotent if multiple identical requests produce the same result. Similarly, an idempotent RESTful web API will always produce the same result on the server irrespective of how many times the request is executed with the same parameters; however, the response may change between requests.

An operation is called safe if it does not modify the state of the resources.

Check out the following table:


Here are some tips for identifying the most appropriate HTTP method for the operations that you want to perform on the resources:

  • GET: You can use this method for reading a representation of a resource from the server. According to the HTTP specification, GET is a safe operation, which means that it is only intended for retrieving data, not for making any state changes. As this is an idempotent operation, multiple identical GET requests will behave in the same manner.

A GET method can return the 200 OK HTTP response code on the successful retrieval of resources. If there is any error, it can return an appropriate status code such as 404 NOT FOUND or 400 BAD REQUEST.

  • DELETE: You can use this method for deleting resources. On successful deletion, DELETE can return the 200 OK status code. According to the HTTP specification, DELETE is an idempotent operation. Note that when you call DELETE on the same resource for the second time, the server may return the 404 NOT FOUND status code since it was already deleted, which is different from the response for the first request. The change in response for the second call is perfectly valid here. However, multiple DELETE calls on the same resource produce the same result (state) on the server.
  • PUT: According to the HTTP specification, this method is idempotent. When a client invokes the PUT method on a resource, the resource available at the given URL is completely replaced with the resource representation sent by the client. When a client uses the PUT request on a resource, it has to send all the available properties of the resource to the server, not just the partial data that was modified within the request.

You can use PUT to create or update a resource if all attributes of the resource are available with the client. This makes sure that the server state does not change with multiple PUT requests. On the other hand, if you send partial resource content in a PUT request multiple times, there is a chance that some other clients might have updated some attributes that are not present in your request. In such cases, the server cannot guarantee that the state of the resource on the server will remain identical when the same request is repeated, which breaks the idempotency rule.

  • POST: This method is not idempotent. This method enables you to use the POST method to create or update resources when you do not know all the available attributes of a resource. For example, consider a scenario where the identifier field for an entity resource is generated at the server when the entity is persisted in the data store. You can use the POST method for creating such resources as the client does not have an identifier attribute while issuing the request. Here is a simplified example that illustrates this scenario. In this example, the employeeID attribute is generated on the server:
POST hrapp/api/employees HTTP/1.1 
Host: packtpub.com 
{employee entity resource in JSON}
  • On the successful creation of a resource, it is recommended to return the status of 201 Created and the location of the newly created resource. This allows the client to access the newly created resource later (with server-generated attributes). The sample response for the preceding example will look as follows:
201 Created 
Location: hrapp/api/employees/1001

Best practice

Use caching only for idempotent and safe HTTP methods, as others have an impact on the state of the resources.

Understanding the difference between PUT and POST

A common question that you will encounter while designing a RESTful web API is when you should use the PUT and POST methods? Here’s the simplified answer:

You can use PUT for creating or updating a resource, when the client has the full resource content available. In this case, all values are with the client and the server does not generate a value for any of the fields.

You will use POST for creating or updating a resource if the client has only partial resource content available. Note that you are losing the idempotency support with POST. An idempotent method means that you can call the same API multiple times without changing the state. This is not true for the POST method; each POST method call may result in a server state change. PUT is idempotent, and POST is not. If you have strong customer demands, you can support both methods and let the client choose the suitable one on the basis of the use case.

Naming RESTful web resources

Resources are a fundamental concept in RESTful web services. A resource represents an entity that is accessible via the URI that you provide. The URI, which refers to a resource (which is known as a RESTful web API), should have a logically meaningful name. Having meaningful names improves the intuitiveness of the APIs and, thereby, their usability. Some of the widely followed recommendations for naming resources are shown here:

  • It is recommended you use nouns to name both resources and path segments that will appear in the resource URI. You should avoid using verbs for naming resources and resource path segments. Using nouns to name a resource improves the readability of the corresponding RESTful web API, particularly when you are planning to release the API over the internet for the general public.
  • You should always use plural nouns to refer to a collection of resources. Make sure that you are not mixing up singular and plural nouns while forming the REST URIs. For instance, to get all departments, the resource URI must look like /departments.
  • If you want to read a specific department from the collection, the URI becomes /departments/{id}. Following the convention, the URI for reading the details of the HR department identified by id=10 should look like /departments/10.
  • The following table illustrates how you can map the HTTP methods (verbs) to the operations defined for the departments’ resources:

ResourceGETPOSTPUTDELETE/departmentsGet all departmentsCreate a new departmentBulk update on departmentsDelete all departments/departments/10Get the HR department with id=10Not allowedUpdate the HR departmentDelete the HR department

  • While naming resources, use specific names over generic names. For instance, to read all programmers’ details of a software firm, it is preferable to have a resource URI of the form /programmers (which tells about the type of resource), over the much generic form /employees. This improves the intuitiveness of the APIs by clearly communicating the type of resources that it deals with.
  • Keep the resource names that appear in the URI in lowercase to improve the readability of the resulting resource URI.
  • Resource names may include hyphens; avoid using underscores and other punctuation.
  • If the entity resource is represented in the JSON format, field names used in the resource must conform to the following guidelines:
    • Use meaningful names for the properties
    • Follow the camel case naming convention: The first letter of the name is in lowercase, for example, departmentName
    • The first character must be a letter, an underscore (_), or a dollar sign ($), and the subsequent characters can be letters, digits, underscores, and/or dollar signs
    • Avoid using the reserved JavaScript keywords
  • If a resource is related to another resource(s), use a subresource to refer to the child resource. You can use the path parameter in the URI to connect a subresource to its base resource. For instance, the resource URI path to get all employees belonging to the HR department (with id=10) will look like /departments/10/employees. To get the details of employee with id=200 in the HR department, you can use the following URI: /departments/10/employees/200.

The resource path URI may contain plural nouns representing a collection of resources, followed by a singular resource identifier to return a specific resource item from the collection. This pattern can repeat in the URI, allowing you to drill down a collection for reading a specific item. For instance, the following URI represents an employee resource identified by id=200 within the HR department: /departments/hr/employees/200.

Although the HTTP protocol does not place any limit on the length of the resource URI, it is recommended not to exceed 2,000 characters because of the restriction set by many popular browsers.

Best practice: Avoid using actions or verbs in the URI as it refers to a resource.

Using HATEOAS in response representation

Hypertext as the Engine of Application State (HATEOAS) refers to the use of hypermedia links in the resource representations. This architectural style lets the clients dynamically navigate to the desired resource by traversing the hypermedia links present in the response body. There is no universally accepted single format for representing links between two resources in JSON.

Hypertext Application Language

The Hypertext API Language (HAL) is a promising proposal that sets the conventions for expressing hypermedia controls (such as links) with JSON or XML. Currently, this proposal is in the draft stage. It mainly describes two concepts for linking resources:

  • Embedded resources: This concept provides a way to embed another resource within the current one. In the JSON format, you will use the _embedded attribute to indicate the embedded resource.
  • Links: This concept provides links to associated resources. In the JSON format, you will use the _links attribute to link resources.

Here is the link to this proposal: http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-kelly-json-hal-06. It defines the following properties for each resource link:

  • href: This property indicates the URI to the target resource representation
  • template: This property would be true if the URI value for href has any PATH variable inside it (template)
  • title: This property is used for labeling the URI
  • hreflang: This property specifies the language for the target resource
  • title: This property is used for documentation purposes
  • name: This property is used for uniquely identifying a link

The following example demonstrates how you can use the HAL format for describing the department resource containing hyperlinks to the associated employee resources. This example uses the JSON HAL for representing resources, which is represented using the application/hal+json media type:

GET /departments/10 HTTP/1.1 
Host: packtpub.com 
Accept: application/hal+json 
HTTP/1.1 200 OK 
Content-Type: application/hal+json 
  "_links": { 
    "self": { "href": "/departments/10" }, 
    "employees": { "href": "/departments/10/employees" }, 
    "employee": { "href": "/employees/{id}", "templated": true  } 
  "_embedded": { 
    "manager": { 
      "_links": { "self": { "href": "/employees/1700" } }, 
      "firstName": "Chinmay", 
      "lastName": "Jobinesh", 
      "employeeId": "1700", 
  "departmentId": 10, 
  "departmentName": "Administration" 

To summarize, we discussed the details of designing RESTful web APIs including identifying the resources, using HTTP methods, and naming the web resources. Additionally we got introduced to Hypertext application language.

Read More:

Getting started with Django RESTful Web Services

Testing RESTful Web Services with Postman

Documenting RESTful Java web services using Swagger

Publishing Product Manager interested in learning how emerging technologies are making the world a better place | Still learning to write better and read more.


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