A step-by-step guide to ExpressionEngine: the web-publishing system used by top designers and web professionals everywhere
- Learn all the key concepts and terminology of ExpressionEngine: channels, templates, snippets, and more
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- Manage your ExpressionEngine website, including backups, restores, and version updates
- Written in an easy-to-follow step-by-step style, with plenty of examples and exercises
(For more resources on ExpressionEngine, see here.)
Designing your photo gallery
There are many different ways you can approach creating a photo gallery in ExpressionEngine. At the most basic level, you have a choice between each channel entry containing only one photo (and a description) or each channel entry containing a set of photos. If you allow only one photo per entry, you can use categories to organize the photos into galleries (and you can even include the same photo in more than one gallery). If you allow multiple photos per channel entry, each entry represents a photo gallery by itself.
One way to accommodate multiple photos per entry is to create as many custom fields as the photos you think you will have in a gallery. For example, if you know each gallery will have a maximum of 20 photos, then you could create 20 custom fields for the photos and 20 custom fields for the descriptions. This solution works, but is not the most flexible (that is, to add 21 photos to a gallery, you would have to modify your custom fields and your templates).
An alternative approach to accommodate multiple photos per entry without creating an abundance of custom fields is to use a third party add-on such as Matrix by Pixel & Tonic (http://pixelandtonic.com/matrix). This add-on allows for tabular data in channel entries—you define the column headings (such as the photo and the description) and then add a row in the table for each photo. In each channel entry, you can create as many rows as you need. For example, you can create one entry with 12 photos and another entry with 25 photos.
Rather than creating lots of custom fields, or using a third party add-on, this article will show you a simple and elegant way to create a photo gallery using the one photo per entry design and then will use categories to organize the photos into galleries.
Before you create your photo gallery channel, you first need to define where your photos will be stored.
The file manager is where you can upload new photos or crop, resize, rotate, or delete the images you have already uploaded, all from within the ExpressionEngine control panel. For this photo gallery, you will create a new upload destination—this is the directory on your server where ExpressionEngine will store your photos.
- The first step in creating a new upload destination is to create the new directory on your server. Create a new directory called photos in /images. If you are following along on an actual web server, ensure that the new directory has 777 permissions (usually right-clicking on the directory in your FTP client will allow you to set permissions).If, instead of creating a new sub-directory inside the “/images” directory, you prefer to create a new top-level directory and you are using the “.htaccess” exclude method to remove the “index. php” from ExpressionEngine URLs, then be sure to add the new directory to your “.htaccess” file.
- Next, you need to tell ExpressionEngine where this directory is. Inside the control panel, select Content and then File Manager.
- On the left-hand side of the screen, you will see the directory or directories where you can currently upload files to (if any), along with the files currently in each directory. In the toolbar on the right-hand side, underneath File Tools, select Create New Upload Destination.
- Enter a descriptive name of Photo Gallery. The Server Path and URL may be pre-filled, however, you should make sure it points to the actual directory you just created (/images/photos). If you are following along in a localhost environment, the URL would be http://localhost/images/photos. Leave Allowed File Types as Images only.
- All the fields that begin with maximum can be left blank. These fields allow you to restrict the size, height, and width of photos. If you do enter values in here, and then later try to upload a file that exceeds these limits, you will see an error message such as The file you are attempting to upload is larger than the permitted size.
- Set the Image Properties, Image Pre Formatting, and Image Post Formatting to be blank. These fields allow you to enter code that appears inside, before, and after the img tag. However, you will format your img tag as needed inside your template.
- The File Properties, File Pre, and Post Formatting can be ignored for now as they only apply to non-image files that you upload (and you have specified that you are only allowing images in your photo gallery).
- If desired, you can allow certain member groups to upload files. The member groups you see listed (if any) will depend on the member groups you have. Set all the member groups to Yes except Members, which should be set as No.
- Click Submit and your new upload destination will be ready to go. Go back to the file manager and you can see the new photo gallery upload destination with no files.
Creating your photo gallery channel
Now that you have created a place to store your photos, you can create your photo gallery channel. You will follow the same basic steps—creating custom fields and categories, creating your channel, publishing some entries, and then building your templates.
Creating your custom fields
Since you are going to have one photo per channel entry, you have a lot of flexibility to create as many custom fields for each photo as you see fit—for example, you could have fields to capture the location of the photograph, the subject of the photo, the type of camera that was used, the name of the photographer, and so forth. However, to keep things simple, you will only create two custom fields right now—one for the photo itself and one for the description.
- From the main menu of the control panel, select Admin, Channel Administration, and then Custom Fields.
- Select Create a New Channel Field Group and call the new group photos. Click Submit.
- Next to the new group, select Add/Edit Custom Fields and then select Create a New Custom Field.
- The field type will be File. The field label will be Photo and the field name will be photos_photo (the first part representing the field group name). In the field instructions, indicate that photos in the photo gallery should be no more than 600×800 pixels (so that they fit on a typical computer screen without scrolling).You could also prevent photos that are bigger than 600×800 pixels from being uploaded by specifying the maximum width and height in the File Upload Preferences for the photo gallery upload destination. You have not done this here because it would prevent you from being able to upload a larger photo and then re-sizing it using file manager.
- The field should be required, but not searchable, and should be shown by default. The field display order should be 1 and the file type should be Image. Click Submit.
- Click Create a New Custom Field again. This time, the field type should be Textarea, the field label Caption, and the field name photos_caption. The field instructions can be left blank. Answer Yes to it being a required field, being searchable and being shown by default. The Field Display Order should be 2.
- The number of rows can be left as 6 and the default text formatting should be set to Auto
(this will prevent unwanted whitespace in your captions due to extra paragraph tags being added, but will also allow multi-line captions). Say No to allowing an override on the Publish page. The text direction can also be left as left-to-right.
- Finally, say Yes to Formatting Buttons, Spellcheck, and Write mode. Say No to Smileys, Glossary, and the File Chooser. Click Submit to create the new field.
Now that you have your custom fields, you can define your categories.
Creating your categories
As discussed at the beginning of this article, you are going to use categories to distinguish between photo galleries. To start with, you are going to create two photo galleries—one for vacation photos and one for local photos. You can always come back and add more galleries later.
- Still in the control panel, select Admin, Channel Administration, and then Categories.
- Select Create a New Category Group and name it Photo Categories. Select Allow All HTML in the category field formatting and check the boxes to allow other member groups to edit (or delete) categories as appropriate. (If you see a message saying that there are no member groups allowed to edit/delete categories, this is fine too). Click Submit.
- Back on the Category Management screen, select Add/Edit Categories for the Photo Categories category group.
- Click Create a New Category. The first category will be called Local Photos. The Category URL will default to local_photos. Type in a category description (you will later display this on your website), leave the Category Image URL blank, leave the Category Parent as None, and click Submit.
- Select Create a New Category again. This time call the new category Vacation Photos, with a URL of vacation_photos. Type in a category description such as A selection of vacation photos taken by Ed & Eg. Leave the category image URL blank and the category parent as None. Click Submit.
Now that you have your category group and custom field group defined, you can go ahead and create your channel.
Creating your channel
The actual creating of your channel is very straightforward.
- Select Admin | Channel Administration | Channels.
- Select Create a New Channel. Call the new channel Photos with a short name of photos. Do not duplicate an existing channel’s preferences. Select Yes to Edit Group Preferences and select Photo Categories for the category group, Statuses for the status group, and photos for the field group.
- Select No to creating new templates and then click Submit.
Your channel is created! Now you can start creating some content and displaying the photos on your website.
Uploading your first photos
There are three ways to upload photos to your website. Your first option is to go to File Manager (under the Content menu) and select File Upload on the right-hand toolbar. Alternatively, you can go to publish an entry in the Photos channel, click on Add File, and upload a file. Both of these options are convenient since they use the built-in ExpressionEngine file manager to upload your file—you never have to leave the control panel. However, you can only upload one photo at a time and you may run into issues if you try and upload very large photos (greater than 2 MB).
The third option for uploading photos is to do so directly, using FTP, just as you would upload any files to your website. Since this requires another tool, it is less convenient than uploading a single photo from within ExpressionEngine, but if you are uploading lots of photos, then using FTP is a lot faster to do. This is the method we will use here.
The built-in file manager also allows you to crop, resize, and rotate images (although you can take advantage of these tools even if you do not use file manager to upload the files).
- Download the example photos (local1.jpg through local8.jpg and vacation1.jpg through vacation8.jpg) from either the Packtpub support page at http://www.packtpub.com/support or from http://www.leonardmurphy.com/book2/chapter8. (Or you can substitute your own photos).
- Copy or FTP the photos into the /images/photos directory that you created earlier in the article.
- Back in the ExpressionEngine control panel, select Content | Publish and then select the Photos channel.
- Type in a title of Fireworks and a caption Fireworks exploding with a bang. Then select Add File.
- The first screen to appear in the Upload File screen. Since you have already uploaded the files, you can simply select the photo gallery option in the left-hand menu.If no photos appear under the photo gallery, or the files appear but no thumbnails appear, try logging out of the control panel and logging back in. (This helps to refresh ExpressionEngine so it recognizes the new files—the first time you access the files after uploading via FTP, ExpressionEngine has to create the thumbnails).
- Select local1.jpg.
- On the Categories tab, select Local Photos. Then click Submit.
- Now, repeat the same steps to create entries for the rest of the photos, using appropriate captions that describe the photos. Be sure to select a category for each photo. There are 16 example photos (eight local and eight vacation photos). Having several example photos in each category will demonstrate how the photo gallery works better.