Coding for the Real-time Web

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As the lines between web apps and traditional desktop apps blur, our users have come to expect real-time behavior in our web apps—something that is traditionally the domain of the desktop. One cannot really blame them. Real-time interaction with data, services, and even other users has driven the connected revolution, and we are now connected in more ways than ever before. However valid this desire to be always connected and immediately informed of an event, there are inherent challenges in real-time interactions within web apps.

The first challenge is that the Web is stateless. The Web is built on HTTP, a protocol that is request/response; for each request a browser makes, there is one and only one response. There are frameworks and techniques we can use to mask the statelessness of the Web, but there is no true state built into the Web or HTTP.

This is further complicated as the Web is client/server. As it’s stateless, a server only knows of the clients connected at any one given moment, and clients can only display data to the user based upon the last interaction with the server. The only time the client and server have any knowledge of the other is during an active request/response, and this action may change the state of the client or the server. Any change to the server’s state is not reflected to the other clients until they connect to the server with a new request. It’s somewhat like the uncertainty principle in that the more one tries to pin down one data point of the relationship, the more uncertain one becomes about the other points.

All hope is not lost. There are several techniques that can be used to enable real-time (or near real-time) data exchange between the web server and any active client.

Simulating a connected state

In traditional web development, there has not been a way to maintain a persistent connection between a client browser and the web server. Web developers have gone to great lengths to try and simulate a connected world in the request/response world of HTTP.

Several developers have met with success using creative thinking and loopholes within the standard itself to develop techniques such as long polling and the forever frame. Now, thanks to the realization that such a technique is needed, the organizations overseeing the next generation of web standards are also heeding the call with server-sent events and web sockets.

Long polling

Long polling is the default fallback for any client and server content exchange. It is not reliant on anything but HTTP—no special standards checklists or other chicanery are required.

Long polling is like getting the silent treatment from your partner. You ask a question and you wait indefinitely for an answer. After some known period of time and what may seem like an eternity, you finally receive an answer or the request eventually times out. The process repeats again and again until the request is fully satisfied or the relationship terminates. So, yeah, it’s exactly like the silent treatment.

Forever Frame

The Forever Frame technique relies on the HTTP 1.1 standard and a hidden iframe. When the page loads, it contains (or constructs) a hidden iframe used to make a request back to the server. The actual exchange between the client and the server leverages a feature of HTTP 1.1 known as Chunked Encoding. Chunked Encoding is identified by a value of chunked in the HTTP Transfer-Encoding header.

This method of data transfer is intended to allow the server to begin sending portions of data to the client before the entire length of the content is known. When simulating a real-time connection between a browser and web server, the server can dispatch messages to the client as individual chunks on the request made by the iframe.

Server-Sent Events

Server-Sent Events (SSE) provide a mechanism for a server to raise DOM events within a client web browser. This means to use SSE, the browser must support it. As of this writing, support for SSE is minimal but it has been submitted to W3C for inclusion into the HTML5 specification.

The use of SSE begins by declaring an EventSource variable:

var source = new EventSource('/my-data-source');

If you then want to listen to any and all messages sent by the source, you simply treat it as a DOM event and handle it in JavaScript.

source.onmessage = function(event) {
// Process the event.

SSE supports the raising of specific events and complex event messaging. The message format is a simple text-based format derivative of JSON. Two newline characters separate each message within the stream, and each message may have an id, data, and event property. SSE also supports setting the retry time using the retry keyword within a message.

:simple message
data:"this string is my message"
:complex message targeting an event
data:{ "who":"Professor Plum", "where":"Library", "with":"candlestick"

As of this writing, SSE is not supported in Internet Explorer and is partially implemented in a few mobile browsers.


The coup de grâce of real-time communication on the Web is WebSockets. WebSockets support a bidirectional stream between a web browser and web server and only leverage HTTP 1.1 to request a connection upgrade.

Once a connection upgrade has been granted, WebSockets communicate in full-duplex using the WebSocket protocol over a TCP connection, literally creating a client-server connection within the browser that can be used for real-time messaging.

All major desktop browsers and almost all mobile browsers support WebSockets. However, WebSocket usage requires support from the web server, and a WebSocket connection may have trouble working successfully behind a proxy.

With all the tools and techniques available to enable real-time connections between our mobile web app and the web server, how does one make the choice? We could write our code to support long polling, but that would obviously use up resources on the server and require us to do some pretty extensive plumbing on our end. We could try and use WebSockets, but for browsers lacking support or for users behind proxies, we might be introducing more problems than we would solve. If only there was a framework to handle all of this for us, try the best option available and degrade to the almost guaranteed functionality of long polling when required.

Wait. There is. It’s called SignalR.


provides a framework that abstracts all the previously mentioned real-time connection options into one cohesive communication platform supporting both web development and traditional desktop development.

When establishing a connection between the client and server, SignalR will negotiate the best connection technique/technology possible based upon client and server capability. The actual transport used is hidden beneath a higher-level communication framework that exposes endpoints on the server and allows those endpoints to be invoked by the client. Clients, in turn, may register with the server and have messages pushed to them.

Each client is uniquely identified to the server via a connection ID. This connection ID can be used to send messages explicitly to a client or away from a client. In addition, SignalR supports the concept of groups, each group being a collection of connection IDs. These groups, just like individual connections, can be specifically included or excluded from a communication exchange.

All of these capabilities in SignalR are provided to us by two client/server communication mechanisms: persistent connections and hubs

Persistent connections

Persistent connections are the low-level connections of SignalR. That’s not to say they provide access to the actual communication technique being used by SignalR, but to illustrate their primary usage as raw communication between client and server.

Persistent connections behave much as sockets do in traditional network application development. They provide an abstraction above the lower-level communication mechanisms and protocols, but offer little more than that.

When creating an endpoint to handle persistent connection requests over HTTP, the class for handling the connection requests must reside within the Controllers folder (or any other folder containing controllers) and extend the PersistentConnection class.

public class MyPersistentConnection: PersistentConnection

The PersistentConnection class manages connections from the client to the server by way of events. To handle these connection events, any class that is derived from PersistentConnection may override the methods defined within the PersistentConnection class.

Client interactions with the server raise the following events:

  • OnConnected: This is invoked by the framework when a new connection to the server is made.
  • OnReconnected: This is invoked when a client connection that has been terminated has reestablished a connection to the server.
  • OnRejoiningGroups: This is invoked when a client connection that has timed out is being reestablished so that the connection may be rejoined to the appropriate groups.
  • OnReceived: This method is invoked when data is received from the client
  • OnDisconnected: This is invoked when the connection between the client and server has been terminated.

Interaction with the client occurs through the Connection property of the PersistentConnection class. When an event is raised, the implementing class can determine if it wishes to broadcast a message using Connection.Broadcast, respond to a specific client using Connection.Send, or add the client that triggered the message to a group using Connection.Groups.


Hubs provide us an abstraction over the PersistentConnection class by masking some of the overhead involved in managing raw connections between client and server.

Similar to a persistent connection, a hub is contained within the Controllers folder of your project but instead, extends the Hub base class.

public class MyHub : Hub

While a hub supports the ability to be notified of connection, reconnection, and disconnection events, unlike the event-driven persistent connection a hub handles the event dispatching for us. Any publicly available method on the Hub class is treated as an endpoint and is addressable by any client by name.

public class MyHub : Hub
public void SendMeAMessage(string message)
{ /* ... */ }

A hub can communicate with any of its clients using the Clients property of the Hub base class. This property supports methods, just like the Connection property of PersistentConnection, to communicate with specific clients, all clients, or groups of clients.

Rather than break down all the functionality available to us in the Hub class, we will instead learn from an example.


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